The Middle East Journal

The Middle East Institute has published The Middle East Journal quarterly since 1947. The Journal provides original and objective research and analysis, as well as source material, on the area from Morocco to Pakistan and including Central Asia. The Journal provides the background necessary for an understanding and appreciation of the region's political and economic development, cultural heritage, ethnic and religious diversity. Become a member and receive a complimentary individual subscription. Or subscribe to the MEJ for your institution. Each issue of The Middle East Journal includes: * Articles written by renowned scholars, foreign policy analysts and area experts. Each article offers unique insights invaluable to the scholar and lay reader alike. * A Chronology maintained continuously since 1947. Organized by subject and country, the chronology is a reference source without rival. * Book Reviews that are among the most respected, comprehensive, and up-to-date in the field of Middle Eastern studies. Full-length reviews, as well as annotations of recent publications, permit the serious reader to keep abreast of current literature on the area. Every subscriber to the Journal receives complimentary access to the electronic version of the Journal. This fully searchable, downloadable version includes access back through 2004

Articles from Vol. 54, No. 1, Winter

Afghanistan in Geschichte Und Gegenwart: Beitrage Zur Afghanistanforschung
Afghanistan in Geschichte und Gegenwart: Beit6ige zur Afghanistanforschung, ed. by Conrad Schetter and Almut WielandKarimi, Schriftenreihe der Mediothek ftir Afghanistan, vol. 1. Frankfurt am Main: Verlag ftir Interkulturelle Kommunikation, 1999. 176...
An Islamic Utopian: A Political Biography of 'Ali Shari'ati
An Islamic Utopian: A Political Biography of 'Ali Shari'ati, by Ali Rahnema. London and New York: I.B. Tauris, 1998. 370 pages. Notes to p. 402. Bibl. to p. 406. Index to p. 418. $59. Reviewed by KL. Afrasiabi It is now academic de rigueur to pronounce...
Blood and Oil: Memoirs of a Persian Prince
Blood and Oil: Memoirs of a Persian Prince, by Manucher Farmanfarmian and Roxana Farmanfarmian. New York: Random House, 1997. xxv + 482 pages. Notes to p. 487. Index to p. 514. $35. Blood and Oil is Manucher Farmanfarmian's memoir. Although Farmanfarmian...
Chronology: Afghanistan
1999 July 19: In Tashkent, China, Iran, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, the United States, and Uzbekistan signed a declaration on Afghanistan, asserting that there was no military solution to the conflict between the Taliban and the United Islamic Forces...
Chronology: Algeria
See also, Morocco, Turkey, Yemen 1999 July 20: Agence France Presse (AFP) reported that, on 19 July, an armed group had killed nine people and injured one in Sidi Rabie, near Medea. [7121 FBIS] July 23: Security forces killed two armed menone in Tlemcen...
Chronology: Arab-Israeli Conflict
ABBREVIATIONS FBIS, Foreign Broadcast Information Service Daily Report-available from the National Technical Information Service, World News Connection on the world wide web at http://wnc.fedworld.gov. The date in the source information refers to the...
Chronology: Central Asia and the Caucasus
1999 July 19: Georgian President Eduard Shevardnadze announced that he would run for a second term in the 2000 presidential election. [7/20 NYT, WP. FBSI Aug. 6: Georgia barred from running in the 10 October parliamentary elections Yevgeny Dzhugashvili,...
Chronology: Egypt
See also, Arab-Israeli Conflict, Petroleum Affairs, Regional Affairs, Palestinian Affairs, Morocco, Turkey 1999 Aug. 10: Agence France Presse (AFP) reported that the Foreign Ministry had banned the Sudanese Human Rights Organization from operating in...
Chronology: Iran
1999 July 17: Student leaders sent a communique to news agencies and Iranian leaders, including Ayatollah 'Ali Khamene'i, President Muhammad Khatami, and the leader of the Expediency Council, 'Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, to announce a temporary ban...
Chronology: Iraq
1999 July 16: US aircraft attacked an Iraqi communications center in the northern "no-fly" zone after the aircraft were attacked by Iraqi antiaircraft fire. [7/17 NYT, WP July 17: The London-based publication AI-Sharq al-Awsat reported that President...
Chronology: Israel
1999 July 18: In Washington, DC, Prime Minister Ehud Barak told US Defense Secretary William Cohen that Israel planned to buy 50 new F- 16 jets from the US-based Lockheed Martin Corporation for $2.5 billion, with an option to order up to 60 more F- l6s...
Chronology: Jordan
See also, Arab-Israeli Conflict, Regional Affairs, Morocco, Turkey 1999 July 16: In municipal elections, the Islamic Action Front won majorities on the municipal councils of Irbid, Russeifa, and Zarqa. [7/17 NYT] July 18: King 'Abdallah replaced 'Abd...
Chronology: Lebanon
1999 July 17: Beirut Radio reported that Israeli aircraft had fired four missiles at the Al-Biqa' region. [7/19 FBIS] July 21: Spain agreed to lend Lebanon up to $105 million in soft loans, repayable over 30 years, to develop small- and medium-sized...
Chronology: Pakistan
See also, Regional Affairs, Afghanistan, Turke, 1999 July 16: The Army Chief General Pervez Musharraf, told the British Broadcasting Company (BBC) that Pakistani troops had crossed the "Line of Control" dividing Kashmir, while carrying out "aggressive...
Chronology: Regional Affairs
1999 July 18: Iranian news sources reported that Turkish aircraft had attacked alleged Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) bases in northwestern Iran, killing five Iranians and injuring ten. [7/19 NYT, WPI July 19: Turkish Prime Minister Bulent Ecevit announced...
Chronology: Turkey
1999 July 22: Prime Minister BuIent Ecevit appointed Recep Onal as the Economy Minister, replacing Hikmet Ulugbay, who had resigned from the post after attempting to take his life. [7/23 FT] July 26: In Ankara, Foreign Minister Ismail Cem met with Greek...
Constituting Palestine: The Effort to Write a Basic Law for the Palestinian Authority
The creation of the Palestinian National Authority in 1994 occasioned an effort to write a Basic Law, a new constitutional structure to govern Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza. While the process of drafting the Basic Law began with very modest...
Decade of Transition: Eisenhower, Kennedy and the Origins of the American-Israeli Alliance
Decade of Transition: Eisenhower, Kennedy and the Origins of the American-Israeli Alliance, by Abraham Ben-Zvi. New York: Columbia University Press. 1998. xii + 139 pages. Notes to p. 191. Bibl. to p. 204. Index to p. 219. $47.50 cloth; $17.50 paper....
Democracy in the Balance: Culture and Society in the Middle East
Democracy in the Balance: Culture and Society in the Middle East, by Mehran Kamrava. New York: Chatham House, 1998. xix + 283 pages. Bibl. to p. 291. Index to p. 299. $29.95. Democracy in the Balance discusses, in seven chapters, social forces and institutions,...
Freedom, Modernity, and Islam: Toward a Creative Synthesis
Freedom, Modernity, and Islam: Toward a Creative Synthesis, by Richard K. Khuri. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1998. xli + 338 pages. Notes to p. 362. Bibl. to p. 368. Index to p. 384. $59.95. The encounter of Muslim societies and intellectuals...
Iran's Strategic Predicament
Iran is fortunate in its strategic situation. It has no historical enemies, no irredenta, no source of permanent tensions on its frontiers. It is well endowed with resources, material and human and well-situated. Iran has a distinct identity and culture...
Israel in Search of Identity: Reading the Formative Years
Israel in Search of Identity: Reading the Formative Years, by Nissim Rejwan. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 1999. ix + 178 pages. Notes to p. 184. Index to p. 1988. $59.95. Nissim Rejwan is a founding member of the Association for Civil...
Kabul under Siege: Fayz Muhammad's Account of the 1929 Uprising
Kabul Under Siege: Fayz Muhammad's Account of the 1929 Uprising, by Robert D. McChesney. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers, 1999. xii + 276 pages. Notes to p. 293. Gloss. to p. 297. Bibl. to p. 299. Index to p. 308. $49.95 cloth; $22.95 paper....
Les Trois Decennies Bourguiba
Les Trois Dennies Bourguiba, by Tahar Belkhodja. Paris: ditions Arcanteres, 1998, 288 pages. 120 FF. This book is a rare first-hand account of how a small Muslim country was ruled for 31 years by a charismatic leader who granted women an unequaled and...
Media Access and the Military: The Case of the Gulf War
Media Access and the Military: The Case of the Gulf War, by Judith Raine Baroody. Lanham, New York, and Oxford: University Press of America, 1998. viii + 209 pages. Appends. to p. 217. Bibl. to p. 234. Index to p. 238. $59 cloth; $36.50 paper. Reviewed...
Modernity and the Millennium: The Genesis of the Baha'i Faith in the Nineteenth-Century Middle East
Modernity and the Millennium: The Genesis of the Baha'i Faith in the NineteenthCentury Middle East, by Juan R. Cole. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998. xi + 197 pages. Notes to p. 223. Bibl. to p. 251. Index to p. 264. n.p. Reviewed by Moojan...
Nuri Al-Sa 'ID's Disenchantment with Britain in His Last Years
General Nuri al-Sa'id, the dominant figure in many Iraqi governments from independence to the 14 July 1958 revolution, is generally characterized as a great friend of Great Britain's. This article examines instances in which his policies came into conflict...
Oil and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1948-63
Oil and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 194863, by Uri Bialer. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999. vii + 247 pages. Appends. to p. 256. Notes to p. 273. Index to p. 282. $69.95. Reviewed by George Lenczowski This book deals with a subject that, after half...
Sands of the Oxus: Boyhood Reminiscences of Sadriddin Aini
Sands of the Oxus: Boyhood Reminiscences of Sadriddin Aini, Tr. by John R. Perry and Rachel Lehr. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 1998. ix + 219 pages. Append. to p. 252. Gloss. to p. 267. Bib]. to p. 275. $24,95. Reviewed by James A Clark No individual...
Secularization of Iran: A Doomed Failure? the New Middle Class and the Making of Modern Iran
Secularization of Iran: A Doomed Failure? The New Middle Class and the Making of Modern Iran, by Azadeh KianThiebaut. Paris: Institut d'etudes iraniennes, 1998. 258 pages. Resume en francais to p. 269. Bibl. to 285. Index to 296. n.p. In Secularization...
Serving the Master: Slavery and Society in Nineteenth-Century Morocco
Serving the Master: Slavery and Society in Nineteenth-Century Morocco, by Mohammad Ennaji. Translated by Seth Graeber. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998. Map. Note on Transcriptions. Gloss. Chron. xxii + 124 pages. Abbrevs. to p. 126. Notes to p. 156....
State, Society and Democracy in Morocco: The Limits of Associative Life
State, Society and Democracy in Morocco: The Limits of Associative Life, by Azzedine Layachi. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Center for Contemporary Arab Studies, 1998. ix + 108 pages. Append. to p. 113. Index to p. 120. n.p. This short book is...
Sudan in Crisis: The Failure of Democracy
Sudan in Crisis: The Failure of Democracy, by G. Norman Anderson. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 1999, xviii + 258 pages. Notes to p. 260. Bibl. to p. 262. Index to p. 277. $49.95. Reviewed by Ann M. Lesch G. Norman Anderson, US Ambassador...
The Dispersion of Egyptian Jewry: Culture, Politics and the Formation of a Modern Diaspora
The Dispersion of Egyptian Jewry: Culture, Politics and the Formation of a Modern Diaspora, by Joel Beinin. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1998, xii + 267 pages. Append. to p. 274. Notes to p. 306. Bibl. to p. 322. Index...
The Gulf Tanker War: Iran and Iraq's Maritime Swordplay
The Gulf Tanker War: Iran and Iraq's Maritime Swordplay, by Nadia El-Sayed ElShazly. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998. xxi + 362 pages. Bibl. to p. 374. Index to p. 403. $75. Nadia El-Sayed El-Shazly, a frequent contributor to English, Arabic, and...
The Khartoum Conference and Egyptian Policy after the 1967 War: A Reexamination
The Khartoum Arab Summit of 1967 has long been known for the "three no's", barring any negotiations with Israel. This article re-examines the Summit, based on memoirs of the participants and other sources, and argues that, at least in the case of Egypt,...
The Making of Israeli Militarism
The Making of Israeli Militarism, by Uri Ben-Eliezer. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1998. xii + 229 pages. Notes to p. 267. Index to p. 278. $35. This is another book in the new "post-Zionist" historiography. The author's perspective is...
The Mythic Past: Biblical Archaeology and the Myth of Israel
The Mythic Past: Biblical Archaeology and the Myth of Israel, by Thomas L. Thompson. London and New York: Basic Books, 1999. xix + 412 pages. $30. The thesis of this widely acclaimed book by Professor Thomas Thompson may be paraphrased as follows. Until...
The Ottoman Gulf: The Creation of Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar
The Ottoman Gulf: The Creation of Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar, by Frederick F. Anscombe. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997. xiv + 173 pages. Appends. to p. 182. Notes to p. 242. Gloss. to p. 244. Bibl. note to p. 249. Index to p. 270. $47.50...
The Political Economy of Market Reform in Jordan
The Political Economy of Market Reform in Jordan, by Timothy J. Piro. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1998. xvii + 131 pages. Bibl. to p. 123. Index to p. 131. $54 cloth; $19.95 paper. In this slim monograph, Timothy J. Piro has concisely and clearly...
The Politics of Refugee Policy in Post-Revolutionary Iran
Since the 1979 revolution, the Islamic Republic of Iran has hosted the largest refugee population in the world. The Iranian experience with hosting, maintaining, and repatriating this large refugee population represents an important, yet underexamined,...
The Story of the Daughters of Quchan: Gender and National Memory in Iranian History
The Story of the Daughters of Quchan: Gender and National Memory in Iranian History, by Afsaneh Najmabadi. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1998. xiv + 183 pages. Notes to p. 213. Gloss. to p. 216. Bibl. to p. 225. Index to p. 241. $49.95 cloth;...
Views in Review: Politics and Culture in the State of the Jews
Views in Review: Politics and Culture in the State of the Jews, by Avishai Margalit. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1998. x + 336 pages. $25. Avishai Margalit is a professor of philosophy at the Hebrew University, a political columnist in Israel...
Water Conflict: Economics, Politics, Law and Palestinian-Israeli Water Resources
Water Conflict: Economics, Politics, Law and Palestinian-Israeli Water Resources, by Sharif S. Elmusa.Washington, DC: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1997. xxii + 408 pages. Bibl. to p. 395. Index to p. 408. $29.95. Reviewed by Hussein A. Amery This...
Welcoming Fighani: Imitation and Poetic Individuality in the Safavid-Mughal Ghazal
Welcoming Fighani: Imitation and Poetic Individuality in the Safavid-Mughal Ghazal, by Paul E. Losensky. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 1998. xii + 313 pages. Persian texts to p. 324. Tables to p. 342. Persian citations to p. 365. Bibl. to p. 380....