The Middle East Journal

The Middle East Institute has published The Middle East Journal quarterly since 1947. The Journal provides original and objective research and analysis, as well as source material, on the area from Morocco to Pakistan and including Central Asia. The Journal provides the background necessary for an understanding and appreciation of the region's political and economic development, cultural heritage, ethnic and religious diversity. Become a member and receive a complimentary individual subscription. Or subscribe to the MEJ for your institution. Each issue of The Middle East Journal includes: * Articles written by renowned scholars, foreign policy analysts and area experts. Each article offers unique insights invaluable to the scholar and lay reader alike. * A Chronology maintained continuously since 1947. Organized by subject and country, the chronology is a reference source without rival. * Book Reviews that are among the most respected, comprehensive, and up-to-date in the field of Middle Eastern studies. Full-length reviews, as well as annotations of recent publications, permit the serious reader to keep abreast of current literature on the area. Every subscriber to the Journal receives complimentary access to the electronic version of the Journal. This fully searchable, downloadable version includes access back through 2004

Articles from Vol. 66, No. 4, Autumn

ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT-Israel, Jordan, and Palestine: The Two-State Imperative
ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT Israel, Jordan, and Palestine: The Two-State Imperative, by Asher Susser. Waltham, MA: Brandeis University Press, 2011. 297 pages. $29.95.Reviewed by Rex BrynenMuch of the debate over the Israeli-Palestinian "peace process" resembles...
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A "Saudi Spring?": The Shi'a Protest Movement in the Eastern Province 2011-2012
Since 2011, Saudi Arabia experienced the largest and longest protest movement in its modern history. This article outlines how small protests inspired by the so-called "Arab Spring" and in solidarity with the uprising in neighboring Bahrain developed...
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Chronology: Afghanistan
See also PakistanApr. 17: Taliban forces launched an 18-hour coordinated attack on Kabul, the largest assault on the city since the beginning of the NATO invasion in 2001. Thought to be the start of the Taliban's spring offensive, 36 insurgents, 11 Afghan...
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Chronology-Arab-Israeli Conflict
See also Egypt, Jordan, LebanonApr. 17: At least 1,200 Palestinians in Israeli jails launched an open-ended hunger strike, coinciding with the release of Khader Adnan, a prisoner and member of Islamic Jihad who refused food for 66 days before being released...
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Chronology: Bahrain
See also Iran, Kuwait, Saudi ArabiaApr. 22: The Formula One Grand Prix took place in Bahrain amid violent clashes between anti-government protesters and Bahraini police. On the eve of the race, protest leader Salah 'Abbas Habib was found dead outside...
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Chronology-Central Asia and the Caucasus
See also Afghanistan, Iran, PakistanApr. 19: A court in Khujand sentenced 34 men to jail terms of between eight and 28 years after they were found guilty of belonging to the banned Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan. Seventeen more men were later convicted...
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Chronology: Egypt
See also Arab-Israeli Conflict, Saudi Arabia, SudanApr. 23: Egypt ended a 20-year natural gas deal with Israel following disputes over payments between private companies. Since the uprising in early 2011, the gas pipeline, which delivered 40% of Israel's...
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Chronology: Iran
See also Arab-Israeli Conflict, Central Asia and the Caucasus, Pakistan, Syria, YemenApr. 22: Iraqi president Nuri al-Maliki visited Iran for the first time since October 2010. Maliki met with Iranian president Mahmud Ahmedinejad and chief nuclear negotiator...
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Chronology: Iraq
See also Iran, Qatar, TurkeyApr. 19: Around three dozen people were killed and 150 wounded in bombings in the cities of Baghdad, Kirkuk, Musul, Baquba, Samarra, Taji, Hadid, Ramadi, and Falluja. An Iraqi spokesman, Colonel Dhiya al-Wakeel, said that...
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Chronology: Israel
See also Arab-Israeli Conflict, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestinian Affairs, SudanApr. 17: The Israeli Police established a new unit to enforce demolition and relocation orders for the Bedouin community in the Negev. The formation of this unit came on...
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Chronology: Jordan
See also Arab-Israeli Conflict, SyriaApr. 18: The Jordanian Parliament moved to bar political parties established on a "religious, ethnic or sectarian basis," which threatened the Muslim Brotherhood-affiliated Islamic Action Front's (IAF) ability to...
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Chronology: Kuwait
See also Lebanon, Saudi ArabiaMay 1: Kuwaiti police dispersed a protest of around 200 stateless Arabs in Kuwait City's outskirts who called on the emir to grant them citizenship. Around 180,000 such people lived in Kuwait but were denied citizenship...
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Chronology: Lebanon
See also Iran, Israel, Palestinian Affairs, SyriaMay 9: The Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL) announced that 58 people affected by the attack that killed former Prime Minister Rafiq al-Hariri were allowed to take part in the case against four members...
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Chronology: Libya
See also Jordan, Mauritania, TunisiaMay 2: Libya's interim government, the NTC, lifted a ban against political parties based on religion, tribe, or ethnicity. The move paved the way for potential Muslim Brotherhood victories in the upcoming elections....
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Chronology: Pakistan
See also AfghanistanApr. 20: A Boeing 737 airliner, operated by local Pakistani airline Bhoja Air, crashed into wheat fields more than five miles from Benazir Bhutto International Airport in Islamabad. All 127 passengers on board were declared dead....
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Chronology: Saudi Arabia
See also Egypt, Iran, Kuwait, Tunisia, YemenApr. 27: Usama bin Ladin's Saudi and Yemeni widows arrived with their children in Saudi Arabia after a Pakistani court charged them with illegal entry and residency in the country and ordered their deportation....
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Chronology: Sudan and South Sudan
Apr. 16: Sudan's parliament adopted a resolution branding South Sudan an "enemy," and vowing to retake the Heglig oil field captured by the South on April 10. Speaker Ahmad Ibrahim al-Tahir went so far as to suggest that Khartoum would strive for regime...
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Chronology: Syria
See also Lebanon, Qatar, TurkeyApr. 16: The six-member advance party from the UN peacekeeping mission arrived in Damascus to begin initial contact with the Syrian government and the opposition. Under UN Security Council Resolution 2042 passed on April...
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Chronology: Tunisia
See also LibyaApr. 20: US treasury secretary Timothy Geithner signed a declaration-of-intent with Tunisian finance minister Houcine Dimassi to provide hundreds of millions of dollars in loan guarantees to Tunisia. The US Congress appropriated $30 million...
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Chronology: Turkey
See also Iraq, SyriaMay 17: Intermittent clashes led to the deaths of at least six Turkish soldiers and several Kurdish militants. Three Turkish soldiers died on May 4 when Kurdish militants opened fire on them during raids on suspected militant hideouts,...
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Chronology: Yemen
See also Saudi ArabiaApr. 16: US drone strikes killed six suspected al-Qa'ida militants in the southeastern province of Shabwa, according to two Yemeni security officials. Azzan was the first district to fall into Islamist hands in Yemen in March 2011,...
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Communications/Professer Waage Replies
The Journal welcomes comments from its readers. All communications should be addressed to the Editor and bear the full name and address of the writer. A selection of those received will be published periodically in these columns. When a comment is received...
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Editor's Note
As the Middle East continues to see the emergence of new political structures and new constellations of power players, our authors in this issue address a number of important political and economic challenges of the present time, while one article offers...
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EGYPT-Revolutionary Womanhood: Feminisms, Modernity, and the State in Nasser's Egypt
EGYPT Revolutionary Womanhood: Feminisms, Modernity, and the State in Nasser's Egypt, by Laura Bier. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2011. 245 pages. $24.95.Reviewed by Mary Ann FayLaura Bier's Revolutionary Womanhood: Feminisms, Modernity and the...
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Institutional and Ideological Re-Construction of the Justice and Development Party (PJD): The Question of Democratic Islamism in Morocco
An analysis of fieldwork research on the deliberations, policy option debates, and outcomes of the 2008 Sixth National Convention of the Justice and Development Party (PJD) crystallizes issues relevant to the party's recent transformations, with focus...
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IRAN-Shi'ism: The Democratisation Process in Iran with a Focus on Wilayat Al-Faqih
IRAN Shi'ism: The Democratisation Process in Iran with a Focus on Wilayat al-Faqih, by Ibrahim Moussawi. London, UK: Saqi Books, 2011. 215 pages. $60.Reviewed by Hamid MavaniIbrahim Moussawi's study of the compatibility between Khomeini's version of...
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ISRAEL-The Political Philosophy of Zionism: Trading Jewish Words for A Hebraic Land/The Origins of Israeli Mythology: Neither Canaanites nor Crusaders
The Political Philosophy of Zionism: Trading Jewish Words For A Hebraic Land, by Eyal Chowers. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012. 274 pages. $99.The Origins of Israeli Mythology: Neither Canaanites Nor Crusaders, by David Ohana. Translated by...
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LEBANON-Lebanon Adrift: From Battleground to Playground
LEBANON Lebanon Adrift: From Battleground to Playground, by Samir Khalaf. London: Saqi Books, 2012. 296 pages. $27.95 paper.Reviewed by Kail C. EllisIn the 1990s, after 16 years of war and economic hardship, a profound sense of relief and guarded optimism...
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LEBANON-The American University of Beirut: Arab Nationalism and Liberal Education/American Sheikhs
The American University of Beirut: Arab Nationalism and Liberal Education, by Betty S. Anderson. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2011. 254 pages. $55.American Sheikhs, by Brian VanDeMark. Amherst and New York: Prometheus Books, 2011. 252 pages....
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MODERN HISTORY AND POLITICS-Desert Dreams: The Quest for Arab Integration from the Arab Revolt to the Gulf Cooperation Council
Desert Dreams: The Quest for Arab Integration from the Arab Revolt to the Gulf Cooperation Council, by Justin Dargin. 312 pages. $ 95 cloth; $ 49 paper.Reviewed by Oliver SchlumbergerIn Desert Dreams, Justin Dargin undertakes the truly Herculean task,...
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MODERN HISTORY AND POLITICS-Dynamics of Arab Foreign Policy-Making in the Twenty-First Century: Domestic Constraints and External Challenges
Dynamics of Arab Foreign Policy-Making in the Twenty-First Century: Domestic Constraints and External Challenges, by Hassan Hamdan al-Alkim. London: Saqi, 2011. 392 pages. Separate insert with map and tables. $65.Reviewed by J.E. PetersonThis is the...
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MODERN HISTORY AND POLITICS-The Arab Uprising: The Unfinished Revolutions of the New Middle East
The Arab Uprising: The Unfinished Revolutions of the New Middle East, by Marc Lynch. New York: Public Affairs, 2012. 269 pages. $26.99.Reviewed by Curtis R. RyanFive years before the events of the "Arab Spring," a term that many credit to author Marc...
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MODERN HISTORY AND POLITICS-The Rise and Fall of Arab Presidents for Life
MODERN HISTORY AND POLITICS The Rise and Fall of Arab Presidents for Life, by Roger Owen. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012. 272 pages. $24.95.Reviewed by Michael C. HudsonIn this intriguing book on Arab authoritarianism Roger Owen brings...
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No EEZ Solution: The Politics of Oil and Gas in the Eastern Mediterranean
The discovery of oil and natural gas resources in the eastern Mediterranean Sea has the potential to exacerbate conflicts in the area. There are many possible ways to prevent this from happening, but each requires the states of the region to cooperate,...
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OMAN-Oman, Culture, and Diplomacy
OMAN Oman, Culture, and Diplomacy, by Jeremy Jones and Nicholas Rideout. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2012. 296 pages. $95.Reviewed by Calvin H. Allen, Jr.Jeremy Jones, a senior research associate at the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies, and...
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PAKISTAN-The Pakistan-US Conundrum: Jihadists, the Military and the People - the Struggle for Control
PAKISTAN The Pakistan-US Conundrum: Jihadists, the Military and the People - the Struggle for Control, by Yunas Samad. New York: Columbia University Press, 2011. 336 pages. $30.Reviewed by Robert G. WirsingYunas Samad's study of Pakistan's relationship...
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PALESTINE AND PALESTINIANS-The Palestine Nakba: Decolonizing History, Narrating the Subaltern, Reclaiming Memory
PALESTINE AND PALESTINIANS The Palestine Nakba: Decolonizing History, Narrating the Subaltern, Reclaiming Memory, by Nur Masalha. London and New York: Zed Books, 2012. 288 pages. £19.99 paper.Reviewed by Issa J. BoullataBorn in 1957 in the Galilee and...
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PALESTINE AND PALESTINIANS-The Rise and Fall of Arab Jerusalem: Palestinian Politics and the City since 1967
The Rise and Fall of Arab Jerusalem: Palestinian Politics and the City since 1967, by Hillel Cohen. New York and London: Routledge, 2011. 162 pages. $124 cloth; $45.95 paper.Reviewed by Itamar RadaiJerusalem has been at the core of the Arab-Israeli conflict...
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Pipe Dreams or Dream Pipe? Turkey's Hopes of Becoming an Energy Hub
Turkey's energy policy is closely tied to its tradition of geopolitical thinking. While Turkey has very few energy resources of its own, the country's policy-making elite is deeply committed to making energy a central aspect of its foreign policy. Taking...
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PRE-20TH CENTURY HISTORY-History as Prelude: Muslims and Jews in the Medieval Mediterranean
PRE-20TH CENTURY HISTORY History as Prelude: Muslims and Jews in the Medieval Mediterranean, ed. by Joseph V. Montville. 214 pages. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2011. $60.Reviewed by Richard J. JonesJoseph Montville, an experienced American diplomat...
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Recent Publications
AFGHANISTANAfghanistan: A Cultural History, by St John Simpson. Northampton: Interlink Publishing Group, Inc., 2012. 160 pages. $19.95. Dr. St John Simpson, senior curator responsible for the pre-Islamic collections at the British museum, furnishes the...
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Stuck in the Big Muddy
When More is Less: The International Project in Afghanistan, by Astri Suhrke. New York: Columbia University Press, 2011. 256 pages. $25.Power Struggle In Afghanistan: An Inside Look at What Went Wrong and What We Can do to Repair the Damage, by Kai Eide....
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US Intelligence Assistance to Iran, May-October 1979
This article describes a US initiative to provide intelligence to Iran in 1979, as radical Islamists were becoming increasingly powerful there and tensions were escalating with the United States. This initiative began in May 1979, when Prime Minister...
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YEMEN-Salafism in Yemen: Transnationalism and Religious Identity
YEMEN Salafism in Yemen: Transnationalism and Religious Identity, by Laurent Bonnefoy. New York: Columbia University Press, 2012. 288 pages. $60.Reviewed by Jillian SchwedlerSalafism is not a single phenomenon, although it is often treated as a unified...
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