Genetics

Professional journal providing news and analysis on field of genetics. Features special reports such as policy reviews and awards.

Articles from Vol. 194, No. 1, May

An Organelle Gatekeeper Function for Caenorhabditis Elegans UNC-16 (JIP3) at the Axon Initial Segment
ABSTRACT Neurons must cope with extreme membrane trafficking demands to produce axons with organelle compositions that differ dramatically from those of the cell soma and dendrites; however, the mechanism by which they accomplish this is not understood....
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Charles Darwin's Mitochondria
ABSTRACT Charles Darwin's long-term illness has been the subject of much speculation. His numerous symptoms have led to conclusions that his illness was essentially psychogenic in nature. These diagnoses have never been fully convincing, however, particularly...
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Defects Associated with Mitochondrial DNA Damage Can Be Mitigated by Increased Vacuolar pH in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
ABSTRACT While searching for mutations that alleviate detrimental effects of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage, we found that disrupting vacuolar biogenesis permitted survival of a sensitized yeast background after mitochondrial genome loss. Furthermore,...
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Effects of Genetic Drift and Gene Flow on the Selective Maintenance of Genetic Variation
ABSTRACT Explanations for the genetic variation ubiquitous in natural populations are often classified by the population-genetic processes they emphasize: natural selection or mutation and genetic drift. Here we investigate models that incorporate all...
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Genetic Dissection of a Major Anthocyanin QTL Contributing to Pollinator-Mediated Reproductive Isolation between Sister Species of Mimulus
ABSTRACT Prezygotic barriers play a major role in the evolution of reproductive isolation, which is a prerequisite for speciation. However, despite considerable progress in identifying genes and mutations responsible for postzygotic isolation, little...
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Higher Levels of Neanderthal Ancestry in East Asians Than in Europeans
ABSTRACT Neanderthals were a group of archaic hominins that occupied most of Europe and parts of Western Asia from ~30,000 to 300,000 years ago (KYA). They coexisted with modern humans during part of this time. Previous genetic analyses that compared...
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Identification of Small RNAs Associated with Meiotic Silencing by Unpaired DNA
ABSTRACT In Neurospora crassa, unpaired genes are silenced by a mechanism called meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA (MSUD). Although some RNA interference proteins are necessary for this process, its requirement of small RNAs has yet to be formally established....
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Identifying Loci under Selection against Gene Flow in Isolation-with-Migration Models
ABSTRACT When divergence occurs in the presence of gene flow, there can arise an interesting dynamic in which selection against gene flow, at sites associated with population-specific adaptations or genetic incompatibilities, can cause net gene flow...
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Improved Reversible Jump Algorithms for Bayesian Species Delimitation
ABSTRACT Several computational methods have recently been proposed for delimiting species using multilocus sequence data. Among them, the Bayesian method of Yang and Rannala uses the multispecies coalescent model in the likelihood framework to calculate...
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Intragenomic Conflict between the Two Major Knob Repeats of Maize
ABSTRACT Examples of meiotic drive, the non-Mendelian segregation of a specific genomic region, have been identified in several eukaryotic species. Maize contains the abnormal chromosome 10 (Ab10) drive system that transforms typically inert heterochromatic...
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Issue Highlights
GENETICS, Vol. 194, MAY 2013, Copyright © 2013An organelle gatekeeper function for Caenorhabditis elegans UNC-16 (JIP3) at the axon initial segment, pp. 143-161S. L. Edwards, S.-c. Yu, C. M. Hoover, B. C. Phillips, J. E. Richmond, and K. G. MillerNerve...
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Kinesin-1 Acts with Netrin and DCC to Maintain Sensory Neuron Position in Caenorhabditis Elegans
ABSTRACT The organization of neurons and the maintenance of that arrangement are critical to brain function. Failure of these processes in humans can lead to severe birth defects, mental retardation, and epilepsy. Several kinesins have been shown to...
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New Roles for Old Characters: An Educational Primer for Use with "Vps Factors Are Required for Efficient Transcription Elongation in Budding Yeast"
SUMMARY An article from Alan Hinnebusch's laboratory in the March 2013 issue of GENETICS establishes an exciting new link between proteins with well-established roles in the endomembrane system and the process of transcription elongation. This Primer...
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Nonrandom Distribution of Interhomolog Recombination Events Induced by Breakage of a Dicentric Chromosome in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
ABSTRACT Dicentric chromosomes undergo breakage in mitosis, resulting in chromosome deletions, duplications, and translocations. In this study, we map chromosome break sites of dicentrics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by a mitotic recombination assay....
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Novel Proteins Required for Meiotic Silencing by Unpaired DNA and siRNA Generation in Neurospora Crassa
ABSTRACT During meiosis in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, unpaired genes are identified and silenced by a process known as meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA (MSUD). Previous work has uncovered six proteins required for MSUD, all of which are...
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Regulation of Ribosome Biogenesis by Nucleostemin 3 Promotes Local and Systemic Growth in Drosophila
ABSTRACT Nucleostemin 3 (NS3) is an evolutionarily conserved protein with profound roles in cell growth and viability. Here we analyze cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous growth control roles of NS3 in Drosophila and demonstrate its GTPase activity...
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Sex-Specific Pattern Formation during Early Drosophila Development
ABSTRACT The deleterious effects of different X-chromosome dosage in males and females are buffered by a process called dosage compensation, which in Drosophila is achieved through a doubling of X-linked transcription in males. The male-specific lethal...
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Systems Genetics of Environmental Response in the Mature Wheat Embryo
ABSTRACT Quantitative phenotypic traits are influenced by genetic and environmental variables as well as the interaction between the two. Underlying genetic × environment interaction is the influence that the surrounding environment exerts on gene expression....
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The 2013 Genetics Society of America Elizabeth W. Jones Award for Excellence in Education: A. Malcolm Campbell
Imagine a college biology classroom filled with students of diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. The students expect to learn the state of current scientific knowledge, but they are surprised that they will be given a chance to experience firsthand...
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The 2013 Genetics Society of America Medal: Elaine A. Ostrander
THE Genetics Society of America is proud to announce Elaine A. Ostrander as recipient of the 2013 Genetics Society of America Medal. Elaine is presently the Chief of the Cancer Genetics Branch at the National Genome Research Institute (National Institutes...
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The 2013 George W. Beadle Award: R. Scott Hawley
IT is a great pleasure to congratulate R. Scott Hawley on being selected as the Genetics Society of America (GSA)'s 2013 Beadle Award recipient. This award, named for George Beadle, recognizes exemplary service to the community of genetics. Scott has...
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The 2013 Novitski Prize: Jonathan Pritchard
THE Edward Novitski prize has recognized an "extraordinary level of creativity and intellectual ingenuity in the solution of significant problems in genetics research" each year since 2008. It is my great pleasure to report that the 2013 Novitski prize...
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The 2013 Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal: Thomas Douglas Petes
The Genetics Society of America annually honors members who have made outstanding contributions to genetics. The Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal recognizes a lifetime contribution to the science of genetics. The Genetics Society of America Medal recognizes...
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The Color Genes of Speciation in Plants
The genes underlying speciation remain largely undiscovered. An article published in this issue of GENETICS presents results related to "Genetic Dissection of a Major Anthocyanin QTL Contributing to Pollinator-Mediated Reproductive Isolation Between...
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The Innate Immune Response Transcription Factor Relish Is Necessary for Neurodegeneration in a Drosophila Model of Ataxia-Telangiectasia
ABSTRACT Neurodegeneration is a hallmark of the human disease ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) that is caused by mutation of the A-T mutated (ATM) gene. We have analyzed Drosophila melanogaster ATM mutants to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying...
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The Nuclear Argonaute NRDE-3 Contributes to Transitive RNAi in Caenorhabditis Elegans
ABSTRACT The Caenorhabditis elegans nuclear RNA interference defective (Nrde) mutants were identified by their inability to silence polycistronic transcripts in enhanced RNAi (Eri) mutant backgrounds. Here, we report additional nrde-3-dependent RNAi...
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The SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling Complex Selectively Affects Multiple Aspects of Serotonergic Neuron Differentiation
ABSTRACT Regulatory programs that control the specification of serotonergic neurons have been investigated by genetic mutant screens in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Loss of a previously uncloned gene, ham-3, affects migration and serotonin antibody...
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Transfer RNA Post-Transcriptional Processing, Turnover, and Subcellular Dynamics in the Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
ABSTRACT Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are essential for protein synthesis. In eukaryotes, tRNA biosynthesis employs a specialized RNA polymerase that generates initial transcripts that must be subsequently altered via a multitude of post-transcriptional steps...
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UNC-16/jip3/sunday Driver: A New Cop on the Organelle Highway
In this commentary, Qun Zheng and Michael L. Nonet examine Edwards et al.'s article in which they provide evidence for a domain in invertebrate neurons similar to the vertebrate axonal initial segment that serves to restrict certain organelles from entering...
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