Journalism and Communication Monographs

Journalism and Communication Monographs is an academic journal focusing on Journalism and Communication Monographs

Articles

Vol. 14, No. 3, September

Commentary
One of the unexpected pleasures of editing this journal is the ability to work with people I admire. I was fortunate to know Dr. Wendy Wyatt years ago while she worked on her master's degree in Missoula, Montana. Back then I remember being particularly...
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Blame Narratives and the News: An Ethical Analysis
AbstractKeywordsblame, ethics, journalistic standards, narrative, news practices"Heads Must Roll"1Do we live in a culture of blame? Some writers at The Economist magazine think so. In fact, a 2008 column in the magazine went so far as to claim that Western...
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Vol. 14, No. 2, June

Commentary
On November 30, 1912, forty-nine journalism educators that included two women met to form the American Association of Teachers of Journalism. The group elected Willard G. Bleyer of the University of Wisconsin-Madison as its first president. It wasn't...
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Shaping and Cutting the Media Agenda: Television Reporters' Perceptions of Agenda- and Frame-Building and Agenda-Cutting Influences
AbstractThis monograph examines television reporters' perceptions of how sources both within and outside the media attempt to influence news content and coverage decisions and to what degree they are successful. Using structural equation modeling and...
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Vol. 14, No. 1, March

Commentary
While working on "Mobilizing Mother" with authors Ana C. Garner and Karen Slattery, my mother died. Here is an excerpt from the obituary I wrote for her local newspaper:The Cowboys lost one of their most loyal fans when Jody Lester died November 4, 2011...
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Mobilizing Mother: From Good Mother to Patriotic Mother in World War I
AbstractThe American press played a key role in the Wilson administration's effort to craftan image of the Patriotic Mother of the Great War. The Patriotic Mother of a soldier was encouraged to assume the mantle of the Spartan Mother. This monograph...
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Vol. 13, No. 4, Winter

Editor's Note
This issue of Journalism and Communication Monographs marks the last one published by AE]MC and the first edited by myself. Kathy Richardson, Felicia G. Brown, and Jennifer McGiIl have made the transition from my editorship of the Visual Communication...
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A Justice's Surprise That Has Stood Its Ground: The Enduring Value of the Commercial Speech Doctrine's Powellian Balance
AbstractOne of the most important concepts of modern commercial speech related to advertising, characterized as the "Powellian balance," resulted in a compromise between those who thought commercial expression should receive little or no First Amendment...
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Vol. 13, No. 3, Autumn

Editor's Note
This issue of the Monographs is my last as editor, although several of the upcoming issues will contain scholarship accepted during my term. As you may know, Dr. Paul Martin Lester, professor at California StateFullerton, has been selected as the new...
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"Journalism as Process": The Organizational Implications of Participatory Online News
AbstractThis Monograph will explore the empirical and theoretical ramifications of journalism as social media, specifically "journalism as process." The piece calls for an end to thinking about news as a discrete product and the beginning of considering...
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Vol. 13, No. 2, Summer

The Social Gospel and the News
"Save our public journals from low standards touching morals and government. Deliver them from sensationalism, untruthfulness, malice, dishonest political measures, personal attacks and the parade of the details of crime and vice. Make them the instruments...
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Vol. 13, No. 1, Spring

Property, Power and Press Freedom: Emergence of the Fourth Estate, 1640-1789
AbstractThis paper employs a theoretical framework that combines political economy and cultural studies to uncover the forces driving the development of press freedom in early modern England, the British North America and France from the launch in 1640...
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Vol. 12, No. 3/4, Autumn

Editor's Note
This issue of Journalism & Communication Monographs is a combined issue of Autumn/Winter 2010, Vol. 12, Nos. 3 & 4. The AEJMC Publications Committee approved this combined issue so all numbers of the same volume will now publish in the same calendar...
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News and Feminism: A Historic Dialog
Mediation involves the movement of meaning from one text to another, from one discourse to another, from one event to another. It involves the constant transformation of meanings...- Roger Silverstone (1999) Why Study The Media?The relationship between...
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Vol. 12, No. 2, Summer

What They Meant to Say: The Courts Try to Explain Branzburg V. Hayes
Part I: IntroductionFor close to forty years, the fate of journalists wishing to conceal the identities of confidential sources from government bodies with subpoena power has depended upon how one heavily divided United States Supreme Court opinion is...
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Vol. 12, No. 1, Spring

Who Speaks for Indigenous Peoples? Tribal Journalists, Rhetorical Sovereignty, and Freedom of Expression
AbstractThis study asks whether tribal journalists appeal to peoplehood or nationhood for authority for their exercise of rhetorical sovereignty and freedom of expression. Freedoms of expression and information, in the context of indigenous tribes in...
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Vol. 11, No. 4, Winter

Editor's Note
Welcome to the first issue of the Monographs that presents research accepted under its revised mission and review procedures. I am excited about the quality and variety of research presented in this issue and that will be published in the upcoming volume....
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Removing the Spin: Toward a New Theory of Public Relations History
PART I: OVERVIEWIntroductionIn the absence of a general theory that describes the rise and growth of public relations, scholars have tended to organize public relations and its antecedents into time periods that present a progressive evolution from unsophisticated...
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Vol. 11, No. 3, Autumn

Editor's Note
The manuscripts in this volume were accepted for publication under the leadership of former editor, Dr. Anantha S. Babbili, and Bonnie Brennan, the previous associate editor.The upcoming Winter issue will feature the first manuscript accepted under the...
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Melanin on the Margins: Advertising and the Cultural Politics of Fair/Light/White Beauty in India
AbstractThe recent commercial boom in women's skin-lightening or "fairness" cosmetics in India is part of the larger context of escalating lifestyle consumerism in Asia's emerging market nations. This monograph examines the cultural politics of gender,...
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Vol. 11, No. 2, Summer

Two Visions of Responsibility: How National Commissions Contributed to Journalism Ethics, 1963-1975
AbstractThe early 1970s witnessed significant developments in journalism ethics as news organizations revised or adopted codes of conduct, appointed ombudsmen, formed news councils, and took the first steps toward integrating newsrooms. Although some...
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Effectiveness of Cartoons as a Uniquely Visual Medium for Orienting Social Issues
AbstractDespite the perception in some quarters that cartoons constitute an important medium for framing social issues, they are often dismissed on the grounds of political absurdity and ideological insignificance. Cartoons are seen as offering just...
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Vol. 11, No. 1, Spring

Newspaper Competition and Public Spheres in New Hampshire in the Early Revolutionary Period
AbstractThis monograph is a case study of newspaper competition in New Hampshire between the province's official newspaper and an upstart Whig challenger in the period marked by contention over the Stamp Act (1765-1766) and over the tight oligarchical...
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Mass Communication and Identity Construction: Theory and a Case Study of Song-Recordings by a Popular Musician
AbstractThis study examines the role of mass communication in identity construction by focusing on song-recordings written and performed by John Mellencamp, a mass communicator who has consistently identified himself with the Midwest generally and rural...
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Vol. 10, No. 4, Winter

Editor's Note
The manuscripts in this volume and in much of Volume 11 to come were accepted for publication under the leadership of former editor Anantha S. Babbili and Bonnie Brennan, the previous associate editor.The two manuscripts in this issue use qualitative...
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Perceptions and Manifestations of Autonomy, Transparency and Harm among U.S. Newspaper Journalists
AbstractThe media ethics literature is filled both with calls to more clearly define the values that govern media practitioners and with claims about which values ought to drive good journalism. Yet virtually nowhere in the field has social psychology...
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Consolidation and News Content: How Broadcast Ownership Policy Impacts Local Television News and the Public Interests
AbstractIn 1999, the Federal Communications Commission changed the Local Television Ownership Rule, allowing a single company to own two television stations in the same media market. The new rules led to the creation of dozens of "duopolies" nationwide....
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Vol. 10, No. 3, Autumn

American Newspapers and the Great Meteor Storm of 1833: A Case Study in Science Journalism
AbstractAmerican newspaper coverage of the great meteor storm of 1833 provides an opportunity to observe that era's science journalism in action. The results are surprising. Newspapers in this period from the Revolution to the Civil War focused almost...
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Editor's Note
As I begin my responsibilities as editor of Journalism &* Communication Monographs, I would like to acknowledge the work of Anantha S. Babbili, the previous editor, and Bonnie Brennan, the previous associate editor. The manuscripts in this volume...
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Seeing Themselves through the Lens of the Other: An Analysis of the Cross-Cultural Production and Negotiation of National Geographic's "The Samurai Way" Story
AbstractMore than any other publication, National Geographic magazine has taught Americans about the world around them. Recently, the magazine's view of the world has become more complex. Since 1995, the magazine has been producing editions published...
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Vol. 10, No. 2, Summer

Editor's Note
As with any intellectual and scholarly endeavor, editor of a national journal depends on colleagues who serve their field willingly and without hesitation in many ways. Journalism & Communication Monographs is no exception to this good fortune. Reviewing...
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Balancing Public Relations with Socioeconomic and Political Environments in Transition: Comparative, Contextualized Research in Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela
AbstractThis comparative, contextualized research conducted between 2003 and 2004 summarizes and discusses the impact of the socioeconomic and political environments on the practice of public relations in Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela. Sixty-one in-depth,...
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An Audience Interpretation of Corporate Communication in a Cause-Related Corporate Outreach Event: The Avon Breast Cancer 3-Day Walk
AbstractDrawing upon a cultural studies perspective, this study investigates the audience role in shaping corporate involvement in social issues - identified as cause-related corporate outreach. We assert that, more than consumer, voter, or passive receptor...
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Vol. 10, No. 1, Spring

Beyond the Four Theories of the Press: A New Model for the Asian & the World Press
AbstractThe four theories of the press have long dominated in journalism education and research and arguably do a good job of describing media systems in the West. However, it is hard to fit Asian media systems into the existing theories. This paper...
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Moral Guardians and the Origins of the Right to Privacy
AbstractThe concept of a legal right to privacy existed long before 1890 when Samuel D. Warren and Louis D. Brandeis published their much-acclaimed Harvard Law Review article advocating tort liability for invasions of privacy by publication. A number...
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Vol. 9, No. 4, Winter

Editor's Note
Intellectual history of many academic disciplines and fields of pedagogy is often defined by central figures that infuse, inject, influence and shape the discourses within. Clifford Christians, arguably, is one such figure - an intellectual giant whose...
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Media Ethics in Education
AbstractTwo major publications in 1980 established the most recent phase of media ethics history in the United States. The MacBride Commission's Many Voices, One World and the Hastings-Carnegie studies of professional ethics in the U.S. (Teaching of...
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Vol. 9, No. 3, Autumn

The Continuous Past: Historical Referents in Nineteenth-Century American Journalism
AbstractThis study examines how nineteenth-century American journalism used history. Based primarily on almost 2,000 magazine article titles, the authors found a marked increase in historical referents by 1900. Primarily used for context and placement,...
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Vol. 9, No. 2, Summer

"Justifying Corporate Speech Regulation through a Town-Meeting Understanding of the Marketplace of Ideas"
AbstractThe debate between the majority and the dissenting justices in the Supreme Court's 2003 decision in McConnell v. Federal Election Commission refocused attention on one particularly intense dispute in First Amendment law that has been simmering...
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Vol. 9, No. 1, Spring

"Pre-Modern" Online: Converging Discourses of Globalization and Development
AbstractThis study seeks to understand the ways in which global capitalist control and local empowerment in the context of development are acted out on the Internet, involving a venture based in the United States, and rural communities in developing...
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Vol. 8, No. 4, Winter

A Historical Case Study of Alternative News Media and Labor Activism: The Dubuque Leader 1935-1939
Identifying Alternative Media in Media HistoryThis study contributes to the historical dimension of the literature addressing alternative media in the United States through a close consideration of the Dubuque Leader's reorganization in the mid 1930s...
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Vol. 8, No. 3, Autumn

The Liberty to Argue Freely: Nineteenth-Century Obscenity Prosecutions and the Emergence of Modern Libertarian Free Speech Discourse
AbstractThis research examines the prosecutions of four noted libertarians: free love advocate Ezra Heywood; Dr. Edward Bond Foote, a well-known New York physician and medical publisher; two prominent free thought publishers, DeRobigne M. Bennett and...
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Bridging Newsrooms and Classrooms: Preparing the Next Generation of Journalists for Converged Media
AbstractThis study has provided empirical evidence that will help journalism educators make informed decisions about how to teach media convergence in their curricula and courses. A national survey was conducted among college professors, news professionals,...
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Vol. 8, No. 2, Summer

Public Sphere and Communicative Rationality: Interrogating Habermas's Eurocentrism
AbstractHabermas's critical theory of society and modernity, which he developed by reconstructing the concepts of public sphere/civil society and rationality, suffers from some of the same weaknesses attributed to the structural-functionalist modernization...
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Vol. 8, No. 1, Spring

Television Station Ownership in the United States: A Comprehensive Study (1940-2005)
AbstractMultiple-station, or group, ownership is a long established characteristic of broadcasting in the United States. It exists whenever a single organization owns more than one station or one medium. Through the efficiencies of operation of multiple...
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Vol. 7, No. 4, Winter

A New Song or the Same Old Tune? Press Constructions of Scotland's Emerging Political Identity in Britain and Europe
AbstractThis case study, focusing on the Scottish press, analyzes emerging media constructions of Scottish identity as articulated through the prism of the new Scottish parliament, with the focus on that institution's preliminary relationships with the...
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Vol. 7, No. 3, Autumn

Black Ink and the New Red Power: Native American Newspapers and Tribal Sovereignty
AbstractThis research explores the relationship between Native American newspapers and tribal sovereignty. By means of a content analysis of more than a thousand environmental stories in four tribal newspapers in Wisconsin, interviews with Native American...
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Vol. 7, No. 2, Summer

Southern Journalists and Lynching: The Statesboro Case Study
AbstractHistorians who have studied the rampant lynching era in the Southern United States that spanned the years between the 1880s and the 1930s have speculated that newspapers actually encouraged the atrocities. This study examines the coverage of...
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Vol. 7, No. 1, Spring

The Party Line Online: An Oligarchy of Opinion on a Public Affairs Listserve
AbstractDuring a 6-month period analyzed in this study, a small number of ideologically like-minded participants dominated a listserve created in a small Midwestern city for discussion of public-policy issues. That dominant group exerted an oligarchy...
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Vol. 6, No. 4, Winter

Junior Scholars in Search of Equity for Women and Minorities
AbstractThis paper reflects upon the 2002 report on the status of women in journalism and mass communications education that updated and expanded the 1972 study by senior authors Rush and Oukrop. Survey data from the 1972 and the 2002 studies are compared...
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Vol. 6, No. 3, Autumn

First Amendment Guerillas: Formative Years of the Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press
AbstractFueled by bitter disputes over the issuance of subpoenas to reporters and operating in the contentious climate of the Watergate Era, an innovative effort in 1970 to aggressively defend the interests of working journalists gave rise to the Reporters...
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Vol. 6, No. 2, Summer

"Her Say" in the Media Mainstream: A Cultural Feminist Manifesto
AbstractThe "Her Say" column of the "Womanews" section in the Chicago Tribune functioned as an editorial to position the new women's section and provide women-centered perspectives on issues. Written by women from outside the Tribune staff during its...
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Vol. 6, No. 1, Spring

Newspapers and Organizational Development: Management and Journalist Perceptions of Newsroom Cultural Change
Dedicated to my mother, Joan Beaton Callahan, (1932-2002).Less than a decade ago, there was a growing concern among corporate executives, scholars, and even many editors about the future of the newspaper industry. Newspapers faced stiff challenges on...
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Vol. 5, No. 4, Winter

First Amendment Values in Fair Use Analysis
AbstractThis monograph examines the status of the fair use doctrine as a "First Amendment safeguard" used to maintain the proper constitutional balance between authors' rights and public access to creative works. In particular, it examines the role that...
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Vol. 5, No. 3, Autumn

Guilty and Threatening: Visual Bias in Television News Crime Stories
AbstractThis experiment investigates the effects of television crime news portrayals of the accused on evaluations of that person. Forty subjects watched television crime news stories, which contained either visual (dressed in an orange suit, wearing...
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Vol. 5, No. 2, Summer

Pointing the Finger of Blame: News Media Coverage of Popular-Culture Culpability
AbstractIn the 1990s, three relatively high-profile tragedies occurred in which popular media products (including movies, recorded music, television talk shows, the Internet, tabloid newspapers, and video games) were argued to be the primary cause. This...
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Vol. 5, No. 1, Spring

Editor's Note
With this issue we begin another year of the Journalism & Communication Monographs.Publication of each Monograph rests solely on timely and insightful critiques completed by a wide variety of scholars. Every manuscript goes through intense scrutiny...
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Crafting the National Pastime's Image: The History of Major League Baseball Public Relations
William Hulbort went: to the door of his hotel room, locked it, put the key in his pocket, and explained to his astonished guests that he wished "to make it impossible for any of you to go out until I have finished what I have to say to you."1 Hulbert,...
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Vol. 4, No. 4, Winter

The Nigerian Press and June 12: Pressure and Performance during a Political Crisis
AbstractThe Nigerian press faced its most turbulent years to date between 1993 and 1998, a span that has been described as the "darkest period of its 140-year history." This was the period during which the military annulled a national election and sought...
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Vol. 4, No. 3, Autumn

Constructing Race in Black and Whiteness: Media Coverage of Public Support for President Clinton
Abstract This study employs a framing analysis of media explanations regarding public support for President Clinton during the 1998 coverage of the Monica Lewinsky scandal. An analysis of broadcast, newspaper, and magazine stories during the scandal...
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Vol. 4, No. 2, Summer

Anti-Communism, Race, and Structuration: Newspaper Coverage of the Labor and Desegregation Movements in the South, 1932-40 and 1953-61
Abstract The Southern labor and desegregation movements were organized at the Highlander Folk School in Tennessee between 1932-40 and 1953-- 61, respectively. This historical sociology examines the role of journalism within the process of social reform...
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Vol. 4, No. 1, Spring

The Family in a Sequence of Political Activiation: Why Civic Interventions Can Succeed
Abstract We invite theorists and architects of interventions to consider the stimulation of family political communication as a powerful strategy for the mobilization of civic involvement. Family-based interaction constitutes a valuable resource for...
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Vol. 3, No. 4, Winter

One Step Forward Two Steps Back: A Study of Press Law in Post-Colonial Hong Kong
Abstract This monograph is a study of press law in Hong Kong after sovereignty retrocession to the People's Republic of China. It asks why has the unprecedented constitutional commitment for press freedom after the handover failed to translate into practical...
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Vol. 3, No. 3, Autumn

The Relevance of Cultural Identity: Relying upon Foundations of Race and Gender as Laypeople Plan a Newscast
Abstract This study placed eighteen groups of African-, European-, and Latin-Americans (divided by race and gender) into the role of news producers; each peer group was charged with planning a hypothetical TV newscast from a list of realistic stories....
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Reader's Perception of Digital Alteration in Photojournalism
Abstract At the beginning of the millennium, almost all of the images that we see in our daily newspapers and news magazines are digitized. However, no scholars have asked readers what they think about the appropriateness of digitally altering images....
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Vol. 3, No. 2, Summer

Global Media Events in India: Contests over Beauty, Gender and Nation
Abstract This monograph focuses on perceptions of televised global beauty pageants among business and media professionals in India who organized, sponsored, and supported the Miss World beauty contest. The 1996 Miss World pageant, which was held in Bangalore,...
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Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring

"All Our Kids Get Better Jobs Tomorrow": The North American Free Trade Agreement in the New York Times
Abstract This investigation examines over 300 articles in The New York Times from1993 that concern the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). In constructing a critical analysis of The Times's discourse on NAFTA, I begin with an overview of the...
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Vol. 2, No. 4, Winter

"Thank You for Taking the Time to Read This:" Public Participation Via New Communication Technologies at the FCC
Abstract The Federal Communications Commission provides volumes of information about its processes on its web pages and invites the public to participate in rule making proceedings using electronic mail. Five FCC rule making proceedings-all of which...
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Vol. 2, No. 3, Fall

"Press Mess:" David Halberstam, the Buddhist Crisis, and U.S. Policy in Vietnam, 1963
Flames consumed the frail figure of a Buddhist monk on a busy Saigon street as an American reporter froze the image in time on film. That front-page photograph of the immolation of 73-year-old Thich Quang Duc in June 1963, was the first of many images...
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Vol. 2, No. 2, Summer

To Protect and Serve: The "Guard Dog" Function of Journalism in Coverage of the Japanese-American Internment
This monograph explores the evolution of themes in print media coverage of Japanese-Americans during the period between Pearl Harbor and the day Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066. Print journalists at first halfheartedly played the celebrated...
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Vol. 2, No. 1, Spring

Political Engagement and the Audience for News: Lessons from Spain
As fewer young Americans attend to newspapers and television newscasts, their levels of political participation have declined, along with their trust in political institutions and in the mass media (see Buckingham,1997, for a summary). U.S. television...
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Vol. 1, No. 4, Winter

Mapping the Environment: Contested Physical and Cultural Terrain in the "Far North"
Of all the groups negatively impacted by the Exxon Valdez oil spill, in many ways Alaska Natives were the most devastated. The oil spill.. shook the ... cultural foundations of Native life. Alaska Native subsistence culture is based on an intimate relationship...
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All You Will See Is the One You Once Knew: Portrayals from the Falklands/Malvinas War in U.S. and Latin American Newspapers
In April 1982, most of the world was taken by surprise when Argentina invaded the Falkland/Malvinas Islands thus initiating an international conflict that escalated into a war with Great Britain. The cause of the war was a struggle for the sovereignty...
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Vol. 1, No. 3, Autumn

The Media's Role in Immigrant Adaption: How First-Year Haitians in Miami Use the Media
Immigrants to a now country need a vast amount of information to help them with everything from job-hunting to -developing relationships. Interpersonal relationships have been credited with having the most powerful effect on immigrant adaptation. However,...
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The Impact of Ethnicity and Ethnic Media on Presidential Voting Patterns
Traditional influences on Americans'political involvement have declined in recent years while the position of mass media and other influences have grown in election campaigns. Although declines have been found for the family, schools, and other socialization...
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Vol. 1, No. 2, Summer

Stories of Sport and Moral Order: Unraveling the Cultural Construction of Tiger Woods
Humorist Dave Barry (1997) has likened sports reporting to "try[ing] to get intelligible statements from large mumbling naked men surrounded by approximately the population of Sweden." As with much humor, the hyperbole rests on an underlying truth -...
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Twentieth-Century Tales: Newsmagazines and American Memory
In 1989, Daniel Boorstin claimed that "[h]istorians like to bundle years in ways that make sense, provide continuity and link past to present. Hundred-year packages-centuries -are the most popular form, and close behind is the decade, as if God had designed...
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Vol. 1, No. 1, Spring

An Exploratory Study of Traumatic Stress among Newspaper Journalists
An unwritten code among journalists holds that no assignment, no matter how brutal, can defy one's capacity to take a photograph, gather facts, and produce a story. Moreover, it is part of the code that the journalist then proceeds to the next assignment...
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Can Democracy Survive in the Post-Factual Age?: A Return Tot He Lippmann-Dewey Debate about the Politics of News
"I have started to write a longish article around the general idea that freedom of thought and speech present themselves in a new light and raise new problems because of the discovery that opinion can be manufactured." Walter Lippmann, 19201 "Democracy...
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