Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Provides broad range of topics in all areas of experimental psychology. The journal publishes theory and review articles, reports on experimental work, and coverage of methods in all areas.

Articles from Vol. 11, No. 2, April

Configural and Contextual Prioritization in Object-Based Attention
When attention is directed to a location within an object, other locations within that object also enjoy an attentional advantage. Recently we demonstrated that this object-based advantage is mediated by increased attentional priority assigned to locations...
Evidence Accumulation in Decision Making: Unifying the "Take the Best" and the "Rational" Models
An evidence accumulation model of forced-choice decision making is proposed to unify the fast and frugal take the best (TTB) model and the alternative rational (RAT) model with which it is usually contrasted. The basic idea is to treat the TTB model...
Exploring the Suffix Effect in Serial Visuospatial Short-Term Memory
The suffix effect-the loss of recency induced by a redundant end-of-list item-was studied in a visuospatial serial recall task involving the memory for the position of dots on a screen. A visuospatial suffix markedly impaired recall of the last to-be-remembered...
Haste Does Not Always Make Waste: Expertise, Direction of Attention, and Speed versus Accuracy in Performing Sensorimotor Skills
In two experiments, we examined the attentional mechanisms governing sensorimotor skill execution across levels of expertise. In Experiment 1, novice and expert golfers took a series of putts under dual-task conditions designed to distract attention...
Learning with Arbitrary versus Ecological Conditioned Stimuli: Evidence from Sexual Conditioning
Laboratory investigations of Pavlovian conditioning typically involve the association of an arbitrary conditioned stimulus (CS) with an unconditioned stimulus (US) that has no inherent relation to the CS. However, arbitrary CSs are unlikely to become...
Loading Working Memory Enhances Affective Priming
Stronger affective priming (Murphy & Zajonc, 1993) with suboptimal (i.e., reduced consciousness) than with optimal (i.e., full consciousness) prime presentation suggests that nonconscious processes form an important part of emotions. Merikle and...
Memory for Actions: Enactment and Source Memory
Enacting simple action phrases enhances item memory but may not enhance other aspects of memory. The present experiment examines the effects of enactment on source memory. During the study phase, participants performed some actions (subject-performed...
One Process Is Not Enough! A Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff Study of Recognition Memory
Speed-accuracy tradeoff (SAT) methods have been used to contrast single- and dual-process accounts of recognition memory. In these procedures, subjects are presented with individual test items and are required to make recognition decisions under various...
Perceptual Specificity of Priming for Compound Words Not Presented
Two experiments extended prior work on the perceptual specificity of priming to compound words not presented during a study phase. In both experiments, perceptual manipulations were employed, and priming was obtained on a word fragment completion test...
Phonological Representation of Words in Working Memory during Sentence Reading
The temporal dynamics of a visual target word's phonological representation was examined by presentation of an irrelevant spoken companion word when the participant's eyes reached the target's location during sentence reading. The spoken word was identical,...
Preparation for a Forthcoming Task Is Sufficient to Produce Subsequent Shift Costs
Shifting from one task to another is associated with significant costs. Recently, it has been questioned whether the mere preparation for a forthcoming task, without the task's actually being executed, is sufficient to establish a new task set that results...
Prioritizing New Elements with a Brief Preview Period: Evidence against Visual Marking
Watson and Humphreys (1997) have proposed that the ability to prioritize new elements over old elements involves a time-consuming process (of at least 400 msec) of active inhibition of the locations of the old elements, which they referred to as visual...
Spelling and Dialect: Comparisons between Speakers of African American Vernacular English and White Speakers
One characteristic of African American vernacular English (AAVE) is final obstruent devoicing, where the final consonant of a word like rigid is pronounced more like /t/ than /d/. To determine whether this dialect characteristic influences adults' spelling,...
Strategic Processes in False Recognition Memory
In two experiments, the response signal technique (Reed, 1973) was combined with the DRM paradigm (e.g., McDermott & Roediger, 1998) to investigate the time course of false recognition memory-in particular, how this effect varies along the time course...
The Ability of the Saccadic System to Change Motor Plans in Scanning Letter Strings
Evidence from recent studies bolsters the idea of preestablished motor plans in scanning isolated items. Thus, refixation saccades are preplanned at the same time as the primary saccade directed to a peripheral item and are completed with fixed amplitudes...
The Accuracy of Spatial Information from Temporally and Spatially Organized Mental Maps
The way a space is learned can result in a mental map that is either temporally or spatially organized (Curiel & Radvansky, 1998). The present study examined the availability of spatial information under map learning conditions where either temporal...
The Redundant Target Effect Is Affected by Modality Switch Costs
When participants have to respond to stimuli of two modalities, faster reaction times are observed for simultaneous, bimodal events than for unimodal events (the redundant target effect [RTE]). This finding has been interpreted as reflecting processing...
The Role of Figure-Ground Segregation in Change Blindness
Partial report methods have shown that a large-capacity representation exists for a few hundred milliseconds after a picture has disappeared. However, change blindness studies indicate that very limited information remains available when a changed version...
The Role of Spatial Working Memory in Visual Search Efficiency
Many theories have proposed that visual working memory plays an important role in visual search. In contrast, by showing that a nonspatial working memory load did not interfere with search efficiency, Woodman, Vogel, and Luck (2001) recently proposed...
Visual Search Is Slowed When Visuospatial Working Memory Is Occupied
Visual working memory plays a central role in most models of visual search. However, a recent study showed that search efficiency was not impaired when working memory was filled to capacity by a concurrent object memory task (Woodman, Vogel, & Luck,...
Warning: Attending to a Mask May Be Hazardous to Your Perception
Object substitution is a type of backward masking that occurs when a mask appears during visual search for a target. We tested the hypothesis that object substitution is an overwriting process triggered by attentional selection of the mask. Impeding...
When Visual and Verbal Memories Compete: Evidence of Cross-Domain Limits in Working Memory
Recently, investigators have suggested that visual working memory operates in a manner unaffected by the retention of verbal material. We question that conclusion on the basis of a simple dual-task experiment designed to rule out phonological memory...
Why Is It Difficult to See in the Fog? How Stimulus Contrast Affects Visual Perception and Visual Memory
Processing visually degraded stimuli is a common experience. We struggle to find house keys on dim front porches, to decipher slides projected in overly bright seminar rooms, and to read 10th-generation photocopies. In this research, we focus specifically...