Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Provides broad range of topics in all areas of experimental psychology. The journal publishes theory and review articles, reports on experimental work, and coverage of methods in all areas.

Articles from Vol. 12, No. 5, October

A Comparison of Forward Blocking and Reduced Overshadowing in Human Causal Learning
In this study, we directly compared forward blocking with reduced overshadowing in a human causal learning study using an A+, B- (first learning stage), AX+, BY+, KL+ (second learning stage) design. The results showed that reduced overshadowing was significantly...
A Dissociation between Causal Judgment and Outcome Recall
It has been suggested that causal learning in humans is similar to Pavlovian conditioning in animals. According to this view, judgments of cause reflect the degree to which an association exists between the cause and the effect. Inferential accounts,...
Disruption by Speech of Serial Short-Term Memory: The Role of Changing-State Vowels
Serial short-term memory is markedly impaired by the presence of irrelevant speech so long as the successive tokens within the irrelevant speech are phonologically (or acoustically) dissimilar (Jones & Macken, 1995b). In two experiments in which...
Dissociation of the Distance Effect and Size Effect in One-Digit Numbers
Magnitude comparison of single digits is robustly characterized by a distance effect (close numbers are more difficult to compare than numbers further apart) and a size effect (for a given distance, comparison difficulty increases with increasing size)....
Eye Movements and the Modulation of Parafoveal Processing by Foveal Processing Difficulty: A Reexamination
Henderson and Ferreira (1990) found that foveal load (manipulated via word frequency) modulates parafoveal processing, thereby affecting the amount of preview benefit obtained from the word to the right of fixation. The present experiment used the eye-contingent...
From Interpretation to Segmentation
In visual perception, part segmentation of an object is considered to be guided by image-based properties, such as occurrences of deep concavities in the outer contour. However, object-based properties can also provide information regarding segmentation....
Going beyond a Single List: Modeling the Effects of Prior Experience on Episodic Free Recall
We present an extension of the search of associative memory (SAM) model that simulates the effects of both prior semantic knowledge and prior episodic experience on episodic free recall. The model incorporates a memory store for preexisting semantic...
Memory Strength and Recency Judgments
Two experiments were done to examine the effect of memory strength on numerical judgment of recency (JOR). In one experiment, the strong versus weak manipulation was defined by stimulus type (pictures vs. names); and in the other, it was defined by long...
Metacognitive Control of Action: Preparation for Aiming Reflects Knowledge of Fitts's Law
Metacognitive control has been studied in intellectual skills but has not yet been studied in perceptual-motor skills. To probe metacognitive control in a perceptual-motor context, we developed a task in which participants chose the position of a cursor...
Modes of Cognitive Control in Recognition and Source Memory: Depth of Retrieval
Recognition memory is usually regarded as a judgment based on trace strength or familiarity. But recognition may also be accomplished by constraining retrieval so that only sought after information comes to mind (source-constrained retrieval). We introduce...
More Words in the Neighborhood: Interference in Lexical Decision Due to Deletion Neighbors
This article reports two lexical decision experiments that provide evidence for the automatic activation of deletion neighbors-that is, words that overlap with the presented word save for the deletion of one letter. Experiment 1 showed slower and less...
On the Mental Representation of Negative Numbers: Context-Dependent SNARC Effects with Comparative Judgments
In one condition, positive and negative number pairs were compared in separate blocks of trials. In another condition, the positive and the negative number pairs were intermixed. In the intermixed condition, comparisons involving negative numbers were...
Priming of Semantic Classifications: Late and Response Related, or Earlier and More Central?
Priming of semantic classifications may occur because of response-related priming or because of priming at a more central locus. To separate these two possibilities, we randomly intermixed adjectives and first names, using a response window procedure....
Representational Momentum and Related Displacements in Spatial Memory: A Review of the Findings
Memory for the final location of a moving target is often displaced in the direction of target motion, and this has been referred to as representational momentum. Characteristics of the target (e.g., velocity, size, direction, and identity), display...
Response Speeding Mediates the Contributions of Cue Familiarity and Target Retrievability to Metamnemonic Judgments
Metamnemonic judgments are influenced by the retrievability of the target memory in question, but also by the familiarity of the cue used to elicit such judgments. However, there have been few suggestions as to what factors mediate the influence of these...
There Is a Time and a Place for Everything: Bidirectional Modulations of Latent Inhibition by Time-Induced Context Differentiation
Latent inhibition (LI) is defined as poorer evidence of learning with a stimulus that previously was presented without consequence, as compared with a novel or previously attended stimulus. The present article reviews the evidence, mostly from three-stage...
The Remember Response: Subject to Bias, Graded, and Not a Process-Pure Indicator of Recollection
Recognition memory judgments have long been assumed to depend on the contributions of two underlying processes: recollection and familiarity. We measured recollection with receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) data and remember-know judgments. Under...
The Role of Similarity in Deductive Categorical Inference
The category inclusion rule specifies that categories inherit the properties of their superordinates. For example, given that all metals are pentavalent, it can be concluded that all iron is pentavalent. Sloman (1998) showed that people do not fully...
Use of Spatial Context Is Restricted by Relative Position in Implicit Learning
For inefficient search, target detection is faster for repeated than for regenerated layouts. This effect, called contextual cuing, was assumed to arise from implicit learning of local spatial relationships between targets and distractors. However, a...
Working Memory Span Tasks: A Methodological Review and User's Guide
Working memory (WM) span tasks-and in particular, counting span, operation span, and reading span tasks-are widely used measures of WM capacity. Despite their popularity, however, there has never been a comprehensive analysis of the merits of WM span...