Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Provides broad range of topics in all areas of experimental psychology. The journal publishes theory and review articles, reports on experimental work, and coverage of methods in all areas.

Articles from Vol. 17, No. 1, February

Anchoring Effects in the Development of False Childhood Memories
When people receive descriptions or doctored photos of events that never happened, they often come to remember those events. But if people receive both a description and a doctored photo, does the order in which they receive the information matter? We...
Changing Priority Maps in 12- to 18-Month-Olds: An Emerging Role for Object Properties
Everyday action in the world requires the coordination of "where," "when," and "how" with "what." In late infancy, there appear to be changes in how these different streams of information are integrated into the sequential organization of action. An...
Contingency Is Used to Prepare for Outcomes: Implications for a Functional Analysis of Learning
It is generally assumed that the function of contingency learning is to predict the occurrence of important events in order to prepare for them. This assumption, however, has scarcely been tested. Moreover, the little evidence that is available suggests...
Diagrams Increase the Recall of Nondepicted Text When Understanding Is Also Increased
Multimedia presentations typically produce better memory and understanding than do single-medium presentations. Little research, however, has considered the effect of multimedia on memory for nonmultimedia information within a large multimedia presentation...
Driving Impairs Talking
It is well known that conversation (e.g., on a cell phone) impairs driving. We demonstrate that the reverse is also true: Language production and comprehension, and the encoding of the products of comprehension into memory, are less accurate when one...
Exploring the Temporal Dynamics of Social Facilitation in the Stroop Task
The importance of social context in affecting attention has recently been highlighted by the finding that the presence of a passive, nonevaluative confederate can improve selective attention. The underlying mechanism, however, remains unclear. In this...
For the Mind's Eye the World Is Two-Dimensional
The nature of visual mental images is a topic that has puzzled neuroscientists, psychologists, and philosophers alike. On the one hand, mental images might preserve the 3-D properties of our perceptual world. On the other hand, they might be akin to...
Homogeneity Computation: How Interitem Similarity in Visual Short-Term Memory Alters Recognition
Visual short-term recognition memory for multiple stimuli is strongly influenced by the study items' similarity to one another-that is, by their homogeneity. However, the mechanism responsible for this homogeneity effect has remained unclear. We evaluated...
Investigating Temporal Properties of Covert Shifts of Visual Attention Using the Attentional Walk Task
The attentional walk task was used to investigate the temporal properties of covert shifts of attention. Observers shifted attention within arrays of identical items in response to a series of auditory commands and reported the color of the final disk....
Is It a Letter? Is It a Number? Processing of Numbers within SMS Shortcuts
For efficiency reasons, words in electronic messages are sometimes formed by combining letters with numbers, as in gr8 for "great." The aim of this study was to investigate whether a digit incorporated into a letter-digit shortcut would retain its numerosity....
Phonology Is Fundamental in Skilled Reading: Evidence from ERPs
Research consistently indicates the importance of phonological processing in early reading development, yet the role of phonology in skilled reading is still not well understood. Two event-related potential (ERP) experiments investigated the nature and...
Situating Math Word Problems: The Story Matters
In two experiments, we explored how the situation model of a math story problem impacts math problem performance. Participants completed multiplication story problems in which a set of objects was associated with or dissociated from a protagonist, making...
Syntactic Transfer in Artificial Grammar Learning
In an artificial grammar learning (AGL) experiment, participants were trained with instances of one grammatical structure before completing a test phase in which they were required to discriminate grammatical from randomly created strings. Importantly,...
Temporal Expectancy Modulates Inhibition of Return in a Discrimination Task
This research examined the influence of cue temporal predictability on inhibition of return (IOR) in a discrimination task. In exogenous attention experiments, the cue that summons attention is noninformative as to where the target will appear. However,...
The Effects of Emotion on Tip-of-the-Tongue States
Tip-of-the-tongue states (TOTs) are judgments of the likelihood of imminent retrieval for items currently not recalled. In the present study, the relation of emotion to the experience of TOTs is explored. Emotion-inducing questions (e.g., "What is the...
The Interpretation of Ambiguous Trimorphemic Words in Sentence Context
Many trimorphemic words are structurally and semantically ambiguous. For example, unlockable can either be un-lockable (cannot be locked) or unlock-able (can be unlocked). Which interpretation is preferred and whether the preceding sentence context affects...
The Persistence of Inferences in Memory for Younger and Older Adults: Remembering Facts and Believing Inferences
Research shows that younger adults have difficulty forgetting inferences that they make after reading a passage, even if the information that the inferences are based on is later shown to be untrue. The present study examined the effects of these inferences...
The Role of Inhibition in Task Switching: A Review
The concept of inhibition plays a major role in cognitive psychology. In the present article, we review the evidence for the inhibition of task sets. In the first part, we critically discuss empirical findings of task inhibition from studies that applied...
Trade-Off in Object versus Spatial Visualization Abilities: Restriction in the Development of Visual-Processing Resources
Previous research indicates relative independence between the ventral and dorsal visual pathways, associated with object and spatial visual processing, respectively. The present research shows that, at the individualdifferences level, there is a trade-off,...