Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Provides broad range of topics in all areas of experimental psychology. The journal publishes theory and review articles, reports on experimental work, and coverage of methods in all areas.

Articles from Vol. 11, No. 6, December

An Evaluation of Dual-Process Theories of Reasoning
Current theories propose that reasoning comprises two underlying systems (Evans & Over, 1996; Sloman, 1996; Stanovich & West, 2000). The systems are identified as having functionally distinct roles, differ according to the type of information...
Causal Models Frame Interpretation of Mathematical Equations
We offer evidence that people can construe mathematical relations as causal. The studies show that people can select the causal versions of equations and that their selections predict both what they consider most understandable and how they expect variables...
Collaborative Inhibition Is Due to the Product, Not the Process, of Recalling in Groups
When people remember together, they recall less than if they remembered separately. This is called collaborative inhibition. We examine whether this is due to the product of group recall or the process of recalling in groups. In other words, is it what...
Confidence and Gradedness in Semantic Categorization: Definitely Somewhat Artifactual, Maybe Absolutely Natural
Artifacts tend to be categorized in a graded (i.e., continuous) manner, whereas natural categorization tends to be absolute (i.e., discrete). This domain-specific categorization is assumed to reflect a domain difference in representation. However, another...
Differential Reinstatement Predicted by Preextinction Response Rate
Reinstatement refers to the recovery of previously extinguished responding by the response-independent delivery of a stimulus that was a reinforcer in training. Two experiments were conducted to examine relative reinstatement following the training of...
Inhibiting Prepared and Ongoing Responses: Is There More Than One Kind of Stopping?
Inhibiting movements has been investigated widely using the countermanding (stop signal) paradigm. Although it has been assumed that response inhibition, as measured by the countermanding task, generalizes to all forms of stopping, this has never been...
Is Categorization Performance Really Intact in Amnesia? A Meta-Analysis
Most published studies of category learning in amnesia have reported intact categorization performance. These results have been used to challenge single-system accounts of categorization and recognition, in which a single representational system mediates...
Is Stimulus Competition an Acquisition Deficit or a Performance Deficit?
Traditionally, blocking (X-outcome, followed by XY-outcome, resulting in attenuated conditioned responding to Y, relative to XY-outcome alone) has been explained in terms of the X-outcome association's preventing the acquisition of the Y-outcome association....
Item-Specific Processing Reduces False Memories
We examined the effect of item-specific and relational encoding instructions on false recognition in two experiments in which the DRM paradigm was used (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995). Type of encoding (item-specific or relational) was...
It's Not What You Hear but How Often You Hear It: On the Neglected Role of Phonological Variant Frequency in Auditory Word Recognition
Recognition of a frequently heard spoken word variant in American English (flapping) was investigated in a phoneme identification experiment. Listeners identified the initial segment (b or p) of word-nonword continua (e.g., pretty-bretty) that was embedded...
Older Adults' Associative Deficit in Episodic Memory: Assessing the Role of Decline in Attentional Resources
In this study, we evaluated an associative deficit hypothesis. This hypothesis suggests that the deficit seen in the episodic memory performance of older adults is due, in considerable part, to older adults' difficulty in binding together unrelated components...
Pigeons Concurrently Categorize Photographs at Both Basic and Superordinate Levels
We studied categorization in pigeons, using carefully controlled photographs. Within daily sessions, 4 pigeons had to classify each of 32 photographs into either its proper basic-level category (cars, chairs, flowers, or people; four-key forced choice...
Semantic Generalization of Stimulus-Task Bindings
People find it difficult to switch between two tasks, even if they have time to prepare-the so-called residual task shift cost. We studied a switch of tasks from picture naming to word reading, using picture-word Stroop stimuli. Consistent with previous...
Strong Memories Obscure Weak Memories in Associative Recognition
The list strength effect, in which strengthening some memories has a detrimental effect on the retrieval of other memories, has generally not been found in item recognition. The present study shows that the list strength effect does occur in associative...
The Affective Consequences of Visual Attention in Preview Search
Comparisons of emotional evaluations of abstract stimuli just seen in a two-object visual search task show that prior distractors are devalued, as compared with prior targets or novel items, perhaps as a consequence of persistent attentional inhibition...
The Broth in My Brother's Brothel: Morpho-Orthographic Segmentation in Visual Word Recognition
Much research suggests that words comprising more than one morpheme are represented in a "decomposed" manner in the visual word recognition system. In the research presented here, we investigate what information is used to segment a word into its morphemic...
The Cognitive Neuroscience of Creativity
This article outlines a framework of creativity based on functional neuroanatomy. Recent advances in the field of cognitive neuroscience have identified distinct brain circuits that are involved in specific higher brain functions. To date, these findings...
The Rich Get Richer: Students' Discounting of Hypothetical Delayed Rewards and Real Effortful Extra Credit
The present research compared choices among students with higher or lower grades for rewards that were devalued by imposing a delay to their receipt (Study 1) or by requiring more work for a larger reward (Study 2). In Study 1, students chose between...
The Role of Response Mechanisms in Determining Reaction Time Performance: Piéron's Law Revisited
A response mechanism takes evaluations of the importance of potential actions and selects the most suitable. Response mechanism function is a nontrivial problem that has not received the attention it deserves within cognitive psychology. In this article,...