Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Provides broad range of topics in all areas of experimental psychology. The journal publishes theory and review articles, reports on experimental work, and coverage of methods in all areas.

Articles from Vol. 12, No. 2, April

Actually, a Picture Is Worth Less Than 45 Words: Narratives Produce More False Memories Than Photographs Do
Most memory "implantation" studies have elicited false memories by using fake narratives. Recently, Wade, Garry, Read, and Lindsay (2002) showed that doctored photographs can be used to create false childhood memories in adults. Fifty percent of Wade...
A Hierarchical Model for Estimating Response Time Distributions
We present a statistical model for inference with response time (RT) distributions. The model has the following features. First, it provides a means of estimating the shape, scale, and location (shift) of RT distributions. Second, it is hierarchical...
Articulatory Suppression and the Irrelevant-Speech Effect in Short-Term Memory: Does the Locus of Suppression Matter?
Immediate serial recall for letter sequences was impaired when irrelevant speech (IS) was presented throughout stimulus input and a subsequent rehearsal interval. This irrelevant-speech effect was eliminated when participants engaged in articulatory...
A Temporally Dynamic Context Effect That Disrupts Voice Onset Time Discrimination of Rapidly Successive Stimuli
Across three experiments, voice onset time discrimination along a /ba/-/pa/ continuum was found to be influenced by the order of presentation of rapidly successive stimuli. Specifically, discrimination was disrupted when a relatively unambiguous /pa/...
Attentional Preparation Based on Temporal Expectancy Modulates Processing at the Perceptual Level
Research that uses simple response time tasks and neuroimaging has emphasized that attentional preparation based on temporal expectancy modulates processing at motor levels. A novel approach was taken to study whether the temporal orienting of attention...
Capacity and Limits of Associative Memory in Pigeons
How much information can a brain store over a lifetime's experience? The answer to this important, but little researched, question was investigated by looking at the long-term visual memory capacity of 2 pigeons. Over 700 sessions, the pigeons were tested...
Compatibility Effects Based on Stimulus and Response Numerosity
Four choice reaction time experiments documented a stimulus-response (S-R) compatibility effect involving the numbers of stimuli and responses. In Experiment 1, the stimulus consisted of one or two tones, and the correct response was either one or two...
Contrast and the Justification of Effort
When humans are asked to evaluate rewards or outcomes that follow unpleasant (e.g., high-effort) events, they often assign higher value to that reward. This phenomenon has been referred to as cognitive dissonance or justification of effort. There is...
Does the Mastery of Center-Embedded Linguistic Structures Distinguish Humans from Nonhuman Primates?
In a recent Science article, Fitch and Hauser (2004; hereafter, F&H) claimed to have demonstrated that cotton-top tamarins fail to learn an artificial language produced by a phrase structure grammar (Chomsky, 1957) generating center-embedded sentences,...
Evidence for Gating of Direct Response Activation in the Simon Task
The Simon effect denotes faster responses when the task-irrelevant stimulus position corresponds to the response position than when it does not. Accounts of this effect assume that stimulus position automatically activates a spatially corresponding response...
Linguistically Mediated Visual Search: The Critical Role of Speech Rate
Recent studies have shown that the presentation of concurrent linguistic context can lead to highly efficient performance in a standard conjunction search task by the induction of an incremental search strategy (Spivey, Tyler, Eberhard, & Tanenhaus,...
Olfactory Imagery: A Review
Olfaction's unique cognitive architecture, the apparently inconsistent evidence favoring imagery, and its difficulty of evocation have led some to conclude that there is no capacity for olfactory imagery. Using three streams of evidence, we examine the...
Recognition Memory for Distractor Faces Depends on Attentional Load at Exposure
Incidental recognition memory for faces previously exposed as task-irrelevant distractors was assessed as a function of the attentional load of an unrelated task performed on superimposed letter strings at exposure. In Experiment 1, subjects were told...
Relations between Premise Similarity and Inductive Strength
According to the diversity principle, diverse evidence is strong evidence. There has been considerable evidence that people respect this principle in inductive reasoning. However, exceptions may be particularly informative. Medin, Coley, Storms, and...
Retroactive Interference as a Function of Degree of Interpolated Study without Overt Retrieval Practice
In two experiments, retroactive interference (RI) was examined under conditions designed to minimize retrieval-induced inhibition and output interference. In Experiment 1, the participants first learned a list of 10 person-location pairs, after which...
Sources of Confidence Judgments in Implicit Cognition
Subjective reports of confidence are frequently used as a measure of awareness in a variety of fields, including artificial grammar learning. However, little is known about what information is used to make confidence judgments and whether there are any...
Stimulus-Response Compatible Orienting and the Effect of an Action Not Taken: Perception Delayed Is Automaticity Denied
Orienting to a signal source is widely viewed as automatic in the sense that it is triggered by the stimulus. However, this behavior is typically assessed in a context in which the subject knows beforehand what he or she has to do. In the present experiments,...
The Role of Selection in Generating Auditory Negative Priming
The importance of selecting between a target and a distractor in producing auditory negative priming was examined in three experiments. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with a prime pair of sounds, followed by a probe pair of sounds. For...
The Spread of Attention to Hidden Portions of Occluded Surfaces
We report two experiments in which the two-rectangles method of Egly, Driver, and Rafal (1994) was used to test whether object-specific attentional cuing advantages can spread to hidden portions of occluded objects. Displays began with portions of two...
The Visual Search Analogue of Latent Inhibition: Implications for Theories of Irrelevant Stimulus Processing in Normal and Schizophrenic Groups
Latent inhibition (LI) is a robust phenomenon that is demonstrated when a previously inconsequential stimulus is less effective in a new learning situation than a novel stimulus. Despite LI's simplicity, there is considerable disagreement as to its theoretical...
Vector Averaging of Inhibition of Return
Observers detected targets presented 400 msec after a display containing one cue or two to four cues displayed simultaneously in randomly selected locations on a virtual circle around fixation. The cue arrangement was completely uninformative about the...
When Are Viewpoint Costs Greater for Silhouettes Than for Shaded Images?
Previous studies of object recognition have shown efficient recognition of silhouettes, suggesting that much of the information used to recognize objects resides in the outline. These studies, however, have used objects that contain many components,...