Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Provides broad range of topics in all areas of experimental psychology. The journal publishes theory and review articles, reports on experimental work, and coverage of methods in all areas.

Articles from Vol. 14, No. 3, June

Action Information from Classification Learning
Much of our learning comes from interacting with objects. Two experiments investigated whether or not arbitrary actions used during category learning with objects might be incorporated into object representations and influence later recognition judgments....
A Reverse Stroop Effect without Translation or Reading Difficulty
It is well known that irrelevant color words affect the time needed to identify the color they are displayed in (the Stroop effect). One major view is that a reverse Stroop effect (RSE) - in which the irrelevant color affects the time needed to identify...
A Signal Detection Analysis of the Recognition Heuristic
The recognition heuristic uses a recognition decision to make an inference about an unknown variable in the world. Theories of recognition memory typically use a signal detection framework to predict this binary recognition decision. In this article,...
Attention and the Processing of Emotional Words: Dissociating Effects of Arousal
There is debate as to whether emotionally charged words receive preferential attentional processing in normal individuals. Using a digit-parity task, Harris and Pashler (2004) found that threat-related words captured attention on only the first trial,...
Challenging the Role of Implicit Processes in Probabilistic Category Learning
Considerable interest in the hypothesis that different cognitive tasks recruit qualitatively distinct processing systems has led to the proposal of separate explicit (declarative) and implicit (procedural) systems. A popular probabilistic category learning...
Displaywide Visual Features Associated with a Search Display's Appearance Can Mediate Attentional Capture
Whether or not the capture of visual attention is driven solely by the salience of an attention-capturing stimulus or mediated by top-down control has been a point of contention since Folk, Remington, and Johnston (1992) introduced their contingent involuntary...
Emotion Simulation during Language Comprehension
We report a novel finding on the relation of emotion and language. Covert manipulation of emotional facial posture interacts with sentence valence when measuring the amount of time to judge valence (Experiment 1) and sensibility (Experiment 2) of the...
Modeling the Word Recognition Data of Vitevitch and Luce (1998): Is It ARTful?
Vitevitch and Luce (1998) showed that the probability with which phonemes co-occur in the language (phonotactic probability) affects the speed with which words and nonwords are named. Words with high phonotactic probabilities between phonemes were named...
Part-List Cuing with and without Item-Specific Probes: The Role of Encoding
Part-list cuing-the detrimental effect of the presentation of a subset of studied items on recall of the remaining noncue items-was examined in three different study conditions and in the presence and absence of the noncues' initial letters serving as...
Phonographic Neighbors, Not Orthographic Neighbors, Determine Word Naming Latencies
The orthographic neighborhood size (N) of a word-the number of words that can be formed from that word by replacing one letter with another in its place-has been found to have facilitatory effects in word naming. The orthographic neighborhood hypothesis...
Phonology and Orthography in Reading Aloud
This study investigated the orthographic and phonological contribution of visually masked primes to reading aloud in Dutch. Although there is a relatively clear mapping between the spelling and sound of words in Dutch, words starting with the letter...
Predicting the Size of Individual and Group Differences on Speeded Cognitive Tasks
An a priori test of the difference engine model (Myerson, Hale, Zheng, Jenkins, & Widaman, 2003) was conducted using a large, diverse sample of individuals who performed three speeded verbal tasks and three speeded visuospatial tasks. Results demonstrated...
"Remembering" Emotional Words Is Based on Response Bias, Not Recollection
Recent studies have demonstrated that emotional stimuli result in a higher proportion of recognized items that are "remembered" (e.g., Kensinger & Corkin, 2003; Ochsner, 2000), leading to greater estimates of recollection by the dual-process model...
Switch Costs When Reading Aloud Words and Nonwords: Evidence for Shifting Route Emphasis?
Reynolds and Besner (2005) examined contextual control over the use of lexical and nonlexical routes by requiring participants to alternate between reading pairs of low-frequency exception words and pairs of nonwords. Their main finding was that latencies...
Target Preexposure Eliminates the Effect of Distraction on Event-Based Prospective Memory
Prospective memory is critical to everyday functioning and can be vulnerable to distraction. We conducted an experiment to explore whether we could buffer prospective memory against distraction. For half the participants, we preexposed stimuli that were...
Temporal Uncertainty Degrades Perceptual Processing
When participants are required to react to a stimulus, reaction times (RTs) are usually reduced when temporal uncertainty about stimulus occurrence is minimized. Contrary to the common assumption attributing this RT benefit solely to the speeding of...
Test-Induced Priming of False Memories
Of interest was whether prior testing of related words primes false memories in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. After studying lists of related words, subjects made old-new judgments about zero, three, or six related items before being tested...
Testing beyond Words: Using Tests to Enhance Visuospatial Map Learning
Psychological research shows that learning can be powerfully enhanced through testing, but this finding has so far been confined to memory tasks requiring verbal responses. We explored whether testing can enhance learning of visuospatial information...
The Lights Are on but No One's Home: Meta-Awareness and the Decoupling of Attention When the Mind Wanders
In a recent review, we suggested that an important aspect of mindwandering is whether participants are aware that they are off task (Smallwood & Schooler, 2006). We tested this hypothesis by examining the information-processing correlates of mind...
Things Are Sounding Up: Affective Influences on Auditory Tone Perception
Recent studies have documented robust and intriguing associations between affect and performance in cognitive tasks. The present two experiments sought to extend this line of work with reference to potential cross-modal effects. Specifically, the present...
Time (Also) Flies from Left to Right
Everyday linguistic expressions in many languages suggest that back and front space is projected onto temporal concepts of past and future (as in the sentence we are years ahead of them). The present experiment tested the psychological reality of a different...
Transfer of Memory Retrieval Cues in Rats
Two experiments using rats were conducted to determine whether the retrieval of a memory could be brought under the control of new contextual cues that had not been present at the time of training. In Experiment 1, rats were trained in one context and...
Working Memory for Language Is Not Special: Evidence for an Articulatory Loop for Novel Stimuli
The "articulatory loop" for rehearsal of verbal materials in working memory has been shown not to be a unique hard-wired structure associated with spoken language. Specifically, a parallel rehearsal process for sign language occurs in fluent signers....