Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Provides broad range of topics in all areas of experimental psychology. The journal publishes theory and review articles, reports on experimental work, and coverage of methods in all areas.

Articles from Vol. 11, No. 3, June

Attentional Capture Modulates Perceptual Sensitivity
The present study was designed to determine the spatial distribution of attention in displays in which an irrelevant color singleton was present. The results show that the presence of an irrelevant color singleton modulates target detectability (d')....
Better the Devil You Know? Nonconscious Processing of Identity and Affect of Famous Faces
The nonconscious recognition of facial identity was investigated in two experiments featuring brief (17-msec) masked stimulus presentation to prevent conscious recognition. Faces were presented in simultaneous pairs of one famous face and one unfamiliar...
Components of Working Memory and Somatic Markers in Decision Making
According to Damasio's somatic marker hypothesis, affective reactions ordinarily guide and simplify decision making. In an earlier study, we used a modified version of the gambling task developed by Bechara and colleagues so that we could explore the...
Destructive Effects of "Forget" Instructions
In two experiments, participants were given three lists of words to study and were told to (1) remember all three lists, (2) forget the first list immediately after studying it but try to remember the other two lists, or (3) forget the middle list immediately...
False Recognition and Word Length: A Reanalysis of Roediger, Watson, McDermott, and Gallo (2001) and Some New Data
Roediger, Watson, McDermott, and Gallo (2001) reported a multiple regression analysis of the variables that predicted rates of false recall and recognition across lists in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm. They concluded that false recollection...
Human Foraging Behavior in a Virtual Environment
We have developed an experimental platform that allows a large number of human participants to interact in real time within a common virtual world. Within this environment, human participants foraged for resources distributed in two spatially separated...
Infants Can Rapidly Form New Categorical Representations
Young infants learn common categorical distinctions, such as animals versus vehicles. But can they, like adults, rapidly form new categories, such as black-and-white animals? To answer this question, 6-, 10-, and 13-month-old infants were familiarized...
Interference with Spatial Working Memory: An Eye Movement Is More Than a Shift of Attention
In the present experiments, we examined whether shifts of attention selectively interfere with the maintenance of both verbal and spatial information in working memory and whether the interference produced by eye movements is due to the attention shifts...
Logical Reasoning and Probabilities: A Comprehensive Test of Oaksford and Chater (2001)
We report two experiments testing a central prediction of the probabilistic account of reasoning provided by Oaksford and Chater (2001): Acceptance of standard conditional inferences, card choices in the Wason selection task, and quantifiers chosen for...
Masked Prime Stimuli Can Bias "Free" Choices between Response Alternatives
Stimuli presented below the threshold of awareness can systematically influence choice responses determined by the instructed stimulus-response (S-R) mapping (task set). In this study, we investigated whether such stimuli will also bias a free choice...
Naive Theory and Transfer of Learning: When Less Is More and More Is Less
In this research, we examine how young children perform induction in the domain of biology. According to the essentialist view, even young children have a priori knowledge that some predictors of biological properties are central, whereas others are...
Orthography, Phonology, and Meaning: Word Features That Give Rise to Feelings of Familiarity in Recognition
In the present study, it is shown that participants can recognize test cues as resembling studied words even when these cues cannot be used to recall the words that they resemble. After studying a list of words, participants were given a cued recall...
Reply to Speckman and Rouder: A Theoretical Basis for QML
Speckman and Rouder (2004) point out that Heathcote, Brown, and Mewhort (2002) did not prove that their quantile-based estimator (quantile maximum likelihood, or QML) approximates likelihood, but note that it outperformed an exact maximum likelihood...
ROC Curves Show That the Revelation Effect Is Not a Single Phenomenon
The revelation effect describes the increased tendency to call items old when a recognition judgment is preceded by an incidental task. In theory, the effect could come about either from a more liberal response bias or from a change in underlying memory...
Seeing Faces in the Noise: Stochastic Activity in Perceptual Regions of the Brain May Influence the Perception of Ambiguous Stimuli
Research on binocular rivalry and motion direction discrimination suggests that stochastic activity early in visual processing influences the perception of ambiguous stimuli. Here, we extend this to higher level tasks of word and face processing. In...
Single Letter Coloring and Spatial Cuing Eliminates a Semantic Contribution to the Stroop Effect
Previous work has shown that the Stroop effect is reduced in size when a single letter is colored and spatially precued. The present experiment addresses a number of criticisms of this work by (1) providing a direct measure of semantic processing, (2)...
Stimulus-Response Probability and Inhibition of Return
Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to slowed responding to targets at a location previously occupied by an irrelevant cue. Here we explore the interaction between stimulus-response (S-R) probability and IOR effects using go/no-go (Experiment 1) and two-choice...
Temporal Grouping in Auditory Spatial Serial Memory
Grouping effects in serial recall have been widely studied with verbal stimuli, but hardly ever with spatial stimuli and not at all with auditory spatial stimuli. In Experiment 1, we examined the influence of combined temporal and pitch grouping on recall...
The Effect of Semantic Ambiguity on Reading Aloud: A Twist in the Tale
Despite numerous studies investigating whether semantic representations are involved in the process of reading aloud, the issue remains controversial. While some studies report significant effects of semantic variables on this task (e.g., Fera, Joordens,...
The GO Model: A Reconsideration of the Role of Structural Units in Guiding and Organizing Text on Line
Healy (1994) and Koriat and Greenberg (1994) offered different theoretical accounts of the missing-letter effect (MLE) in the letter-detection task, whereby a disproportionate number of letter-detection errors occur in frequent function words. Healy...
The Influence of Phonological Neighborhood on Visual Word Perception
In the research reported here, we investigated the influence of phonological neighborhood density on the processing of words in the visual lexical decision task. The results of the first experiment revealed that words with large phonological neighborhoods...
The Serial-Parallel Dilemma: A Case Study in a Linkage of Theory and Method
The question as to whether humans perceive, remember, or cognize psychological items simultaneously (i.e., in parallel) or sequentially (i.e., serially) has been of interest to philosophers and psychologists since at least the 19th century. The advent...
Visual Short-Term Memory for Two Sequential Arrays: One Integrated Representation or Two Separate Representations?
Two dot arrays, each containing a different set of six randomly selected locations from a 5 × 5 matrix, were presented briefly and were separated by an interstimulus interval (ISI) of 0, 200, 500, or 1,500 msec. Subjects were asked to remember these...
When Do Leotards Get Their Spots? Semantic Activation of Lexical Neighbors in Visual Word Recognition
Shadowing and priming studies have provided strong evidence that during spoken word recognition, the meanings of different words that share their onset (e.g., captain and captive) are activated in parallel. In contrast, for visual word recognition, there...
Why Are Average Faces Attractive? the Effect of View and Averageness on the Attractiveness of Female Faces
Images of faces manipulated to make their shapes closer to the average are perceived as more attractive. The influences of symmetry and averageness are often confounded in studies based on full-face views of faces. Two experiments are reported that compared...