Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Provides broad range of topics in all areas of experimental psychology. The journal publishes theory and review articles, reports on experimental work, and coverage of methods in all areas.

Articles from Vol. 13, No. 1, February

A Critical Test of the Failure-to-Engage Theory of Task Switching
When people switch between two tasks, their performance on each is worse than when they perform that task in isolation. One theory of this "switch cost" is the failure-to-engage (FTE) theory, which posits that observed responses are a simple mixture...
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A Time Course Analysis of Enriched Composition
Linguistic analyses suggest that common and seemingly simple expressions, such as began the book, cannot be interpreted with simple compositional processes; rather, they require enriched composition to provide an interpretation, such as began reading...
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Attentional Capture Triggers an Attentional Blink
Two experiments examined the possibility that attention directed to a distractor during rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) can produce an attentional blink (AB). A to-be-ignored distractor (D1) preceded a target word (T2) by a variable lag in RSVP...
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Cuing the Dimension of a Distractor: Verbal Cues of Target Identity Also Benefit Same-Dimension Distractor Singletons
Cuing the identity of an upcoming target speeds its detection. This effect is generally assumed to operate on the level of the target dimension, not of its feature identity. Here, we investigated whether that is the case, in a design in which preparing...
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Does Momentary Accessibility Influence Metacomprehension Judgments? the Influence of Study-Judgment Lags on Accessibility Effects
In two experiments, we investigated momentary accessibility as a basis for metacomprehension judgments. Momentary accessibility has been cited as a major contributor to these judgments, yet the only previous investigation on the topic used judgments...
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Flexible Mental Processes in Numerical Size Judgments: The Case of Hebrew Letters That Are Used to Convey Numbers
In addition to its primary linguistic function, the Hebrew alphabet is sometimes used as a means of number notation (i.e., the system of gematria). Hebrew letters, Arabic numerals, Hebrew number names, and Hebrew letter names were used in a numerical...
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Flexible Remembering
Although highly specific memory is critical in many contexts, the ability to recall knowledge in a more abstract or "gist-based" manner is crucial in allowing transfer of learning to new situations and to complex forms of thought such as using analogies...
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Inhomogeneous Surrounds, Conflicting Frameworks, and the Double-Anchoring Theory of Lightness
The empirical question of whether or not the lightness of a region is accounted for purely by the average luminance of its surround has a complex answer that depends on whether such a region is an increment, a decrement, or intermediate relative to the...
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It's under Control: Top-Down Search Strategies Can Override Attentional Capture
Bacon and Egeth (1994) proposed that observed instances of attentional capture by feature single-tons (e.g., color) were the result of a salience-based strategy adopted by subjects (singleton detection mode) and, thus, were not automatic. They showed...
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Letter-by-Letter Processing in the Phonological Conversion of Multiletter Graphemes: Searching for Sounds in Printed Pseudowords
Current models of word reading differ in their descriptions of how print-to-sound conversion is performed. Whereas a parallel procedure is generally assumed, the dual-route cascaded model developed by Coltheart and colleagues (Coltheart, Rastle, Perry,...
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Memory Conjunction Errors for Realistic Faces Are Consistent with Configural Processing
Conjunction faces are formed from feature sets learned across different faces. In previous studies, false alarms ("old" responses) to conjunctions have been very high, approaching hits to old faces; this is surprising, because, perceptually, upright...
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Models of Recognition: A Review of Arguments in Favor of a Dual-Process Account
The majority of computationally specified models of recognition memory have been based on a single-process interpretation, claiming that familiarity is the only influence on recognition. There is increasing evidence that recognition is, in fact, based...
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Observer Pitch and Roll Influence: The Rod and Frame Illusion
Observers misperceive the orientation of a vertical rod when it is viewed in the context of a tilted frame (the rod and frame illusion, or RFI). The pitch and roll of the surrounding surfaces have independent influences on this illusion (Nelson &...
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Out with the Old, in with the New: More Valid Measures of Switch Cost and Retrieval Time in the Task Span Procedure
Two experiments provided new measures of switch cost and retrieval time in the task span procedure. In Experiment 1, subjects were given lists of six task names to remember, followed by six targets on which to perform the tasks named in the list. The...
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Priming Cue Encoding by Manipulating Transition Frequency in Explicitly Cued Task Switching
Explicitly cued task switching with multiple cues per task permits three types of transitions: cue repetitions (cue and task repeat), task repetitions (cue changes but task repeats), and task alternations (cue and task change). The difference between...
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Reexamining the Word Length Effect in Visual Word Recognition: New Evidence from the English Lexicon Project
In the present study, we reexamined the effect of word length (number of letters in a word) on lexical decision. Using the English Lexicon Project, which is based on a large data set of over 40,481 words (Balota et al., 2002), we performed simultaneous...
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Similes on the Internet Have Explanations
We searched the Internet for expressions linking topics, such as crime, and vehicles, such as disease, as similes (crime is like a disease) and as metaphors (crime is a disease). We counted the number of times the expressions were accompanied by explanations...
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The Influence of Averaging and Noisy Decision Strategies on the Recognition Memory ROC
Many single- and dual-process models of recognition memory predict that the ratings and remember-know receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) are the same, but Rotello, Macmillan, and Reeder (2004) reported that the slopes of the remember-know and...
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The Influence of Spelling on Phonological Encoding in Word Reading, Object Naming, and Word Generation
Does the spelling of a word mandatorily constrain spoken word production, or does it do so only when spelling is relevant for the production task at hand? Damian and Bowers (2003) reported spelling effects in spoken word production in English using a...
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The Nature of Restructuring in Insight: An Individual-Differences Approach
The insightful problem-solving process has been proposed to involve three main phases: an initial representation phase, in which the solver inappropriately represents the problem; an initial search through the faulty problem space that may lead to impasse;...
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The Relationship between Absolute and Proportion Scores of Serial Order Memory: Simulation Predictions and Empirical Data
The capability of a feature model of immediate memory (Nairne, 1990; Neath, 2000) to predict and account for a relationship between absolute and proportion scoring of immediate serial recall when memory load is varied (the list-length effect, LLE) is...
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Top-Down and Bottom-Up Sequential Modulations of Congruency Effects
Several studies have demonstrated reduced congruency effects after incongruent trials. The conflict monitoring hypothesis (Botvinick, Braver, Barch, Carter, & Cohen, 2001) assumes that this sequential modulation is based on top-down cognitive control...
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Why Eye Movements and Perceptual Factors Have to Be Controlled in Studies on "Representational momentum"/Computational Theory and Cognition in Representational Momentum and Related Types of Displacement: A Reply to Kerzel
DIRK KERZELUniversity of Geneva, Geneva, SwitzerlandIn order to study memory of the final position of a smoothly moving target, Hubbard (e.g., Hubbard & Bharucha, 1988) presented smooth stimulus motion and used motor responses. In contrast, Freyd...
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