Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Provides broad range of topics in all areas of experimental psychology. The journal publishes theory and review articles, reports on experimental work, and coverage of methods in all areas.

Articles from Vol. 13, No. 6, December

Analogue versus Propositional Representation in Congenitally Blind Individuals
Congenitally blind individuals are generally less accurate at mentally manipulating objects than sighted people. However, they often score higher on tests of short- and long-term verbal memory, and it has been suggested that an enhanced prepositional...
An Interactive Hebbian Account of Lexically Guided Tuning of Speech Perception
We describe an account of lexically guided tuning of speech perception based on interactive processing and Hebbian learning. Interactive feedback provides lexical information to prelexical levels, and Hebbian learning uses that information to retune...
Attending to a Misoriented Word Causes the Eyeball to Rotate in the Head
Torsional eye movements are triggered by head tilt and a rotating visual field. We examined whether attention to a misoriented form could also induce torsion. Thirty-six observers viewed an adapting field containing a bright vertical line, and then they...
Attention Alters the Appearance of Motion Coherence
Selective attention enhances visual information processing, as measured by behavioral performance and neural activity. However, little is known about its effects on subjective experience. Here, we investigated the effect of transient (exogenous) attention...
Category-Level Contributions to the Alphanumeric Category Effect in Visual Search
Do letter and digit recognition depend on the same or different cognitive mechanisms? Letters are detected more quickly among digits than among letters; likewise, digit search is facilitated when distractors are letters, as opposed to digits. This effect...
Choking under Pressure and Working Memory Capacity: When Performance Pressure Reduces Fluid Intelligence
Recent findings (Beilock & Carr, 2005) have demonstrated that only individuals with a high working memory capacity (WMC) "choke under pressure" on math problems with high working memory demands. This suggests that performance pressure hinders those...
Development of Intuitive Rules: Evaluating the Application of the Dual-System Framework to Understanding Children's Intuitive Reasoning
Theories of adult reasoning propose that reasoning consists of two functionally distinct systems that operate under entirely different mechanisms. This theoretical framework has been used to account for a wide range of phenomena, which now encompasses...
Dual-Task Influences on Retrieval from Semantic Memory and Coordination Dynamics
Bimanual 1:1 rhythmic coordination was performed while retrieving words from a specified category. The effects of divided attention (DA) on coordination were indexed by changes in mean relative phase and recurrence measures of shared activity between...
Gaze Cuing and Affective Judgments of Objects: I like What You Look At
When we see another person look somewhere, we automatically attend to the same location in space. This joint attention emerges early in life and has a great impact on social interactions in development and in everyday adult life. The direction of another's...
Improving the Reliability of Event-Based Laboratory Tests of Prospective Memory
Laboratory tests of event-based prospective memory (ProM) require participants to perform actions in response to infrequent cues in a background task. We conducted three experiments to assess and improve the reliability of this popular procedure. In...
Intelligence and Cognitive Flexibility: Fluid Intelligence Correlates with Feature "Unbinding" across Perception and Action
People integrate the features of perceived events and of action plans, as well as of episodic stimulus-response relations, into event files. We investigated whether the management of event files, and particularly the speed of updating the binding between...
Is Retrieval Success a Necessary Condition for Retrieval-Induced Forgetting?
When information is retrieved from memory, it becomes more recallable than it would have been otherwise. Other information associated with the same cue or configuration of cues, however, becomes less recallable. Such retrieval-induced forgetting (Anderson,...
More Efficient Rejection of Happy Than of Angry Face Distractors in Visual Search
In the present study, we examined whether the detection advantage for negative-face targets in crowds of positive-face distractors over positive-face targets in crowds of negative faces can be explained by differentially efficient distractor rejection....
Motion Tracking Modulates Capacity Allocation of Visual Working Memory
Previous studies on visual working memory (VWM) have primarily investigated memory for an array presented for a single moment. Here, we examined VWM for two arrays separated by a 1,100-msec interval. We focused on the allocation of VWM capacity to the...
Probability as Certainty: Dichotomous Thinking and the Misuse of P Values
Significance testing is widely used and often criticized. The Task Force on Statistical Inference of the American Psychological Association (TFSI, APA; Wilkinson & TFSI, 1999) addressed the use of significance testing and made recommendations that...
Required Pecking Alters Judgments of the Passage of Time by Pigeons
There is evidence that how humans perceive time is affected by the activity in which they are engaged when they are judging time. In humans, typically, the more demanding the task, the faster time seems to pass. We asked whether a similar effect could...
Self-Generated Visual Imagery Alters the Mere Exposure Effect
To determine whether self-generated visual imagery alters liking ratings of merely exposed stimuli, 79 college students were repeatedly exposed to the ambiguous duck-rabbit figure. Half the participants were told to picture the image as a duck and half...
Sources of Individual Differences in Working Memory: Contributions of Strategy to Capacity
Some research on attentional control in working memory has emphasized theoretical capacity differences. However, strategic behavior, which has been relatively unexplored, can also influence attentional control and its relationship to cognitive performance....
Stimulus Conflict Predicts Conflict Adaptation in a Numerical Flanker Task
Conflict monitoring theory states that response conflict triggers conflict adaptation, resulting in reduced congruency effects after response-incongruent trials (Botvinick, Braver, Barch, Carter, & Cohen, 2001). Verbruggen, Notebaert, Liefooghe,...
Task Switching Is Not Cue Switching
With the aim of reducing cognitive control in task switching to simpler processes, researchers have proposed in a series of recent studies that there is little more to switching tasks than switching cues. The present study addresses three questions concerning...
The Lexical Bias Effect in Bilingual Speech Production: Evidence for Feedback between Lexical and Sublexical Levels across Languages
The lexical bias effect (LBE) is the tendency for phonological substitution errors to result in existing words (rather than nonwords) at a rate higher than would be predicted by chance. This effect is often interpreted as revealing feedback between the...
The Modulation of Lexical Competition by Segment Duration
In an eye-tracking study, we examined how fine-grained phonetic detail, such as segment duration, influences the lexical competition process during spoken word recognition. Dutch listeners' eye movements to pictures of four objects were monitored as...
The Role of Affordances in Inhibition of Return
Inhibition of return (IOR) is a response delay that occurs when the target is preceded by an irrelevant stimulus (cue) at the same location. IOR can be object based, as well as location based. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role...
The Role of Processing Difficulty in the Predictive Utility of Working Memory Span
Storage-plus-processing working memory span tasks (e.g., operation span [OSPAN]) are strong predictors of higher order cognition, including general fluid intelligence. This is due, in part, to the difficulty of the processing component. When the processing...
The Roles of Semantic Similarity and Proactive Interference in the Word Length Effect
We examined the influence of semantic similarity and proactive interference (PI) on the word length effect (WLE) in immediate serial recall. Word length was manipulated by comparing memory for monosyllabic versus multisyllabic words. PI effects were...