Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Provides broad range of topics in all areas of experimental psychology. The journal publishes theory and review articles, reports on experimental work, and coverage of methods in all areas.

Articles from Vol. 15, No. 3, June

A Similarity-Based Range-Frequency Model for Two-Category Rating Data
This research examines whether an extension of range-frequency theory (Parducci, 1965) could successfully predict context effects on discrimination between stimuli for two-category rating data. The new model proposes that similarity comparisons between...
Brain Lesion and Memory Functioning: Short-Term Memory Deficit Is Independent of Lesion Location
We analyzed the effects of patterns of brain lesions from penetrating head injuries on memory performance in participants of the Vietnam Head Injury Study (Grafman et al., 1988). Classes of lesion patterns were determined by mixture modeling (L. K. Muthén...
Characteristic Sounds Facilitate Visual Search
In a natural environment, objects that we look for often make characteristic sounds. A hiding cat may meow, or the keys in the cluttered drawer may jingle when moved. Using a visual search paradigm, we demonstrated that characteristic sounds facilitated...
Cognitive Dissonance in Children: Justification of Effort or Contrast?
Justification of effort is a form of cognitive dissonance in which the subjective value of an outcome is directly related to the effort that went into obtaining it. However, it is likely that in social contexts (such as the requirements for joining a...
Decision Noise: An Explanation for Observed Violations of Signal Detection Theory
In signal detection theory (SDT), responses are governed by perceptual noise and a flexible decision criterion. Recent criticisms of SDT (see, e.g., Balakrishnan, 1999) have identified violations of its assumptions, and researchers have suggested that...
Delayed Memory for Visual-Haptic Exploration of Familiar Objects
Long-term memory of haptic, visual, and cross-modality information was investigated. In Experiment 1, subjects briefly explored 40 commonplace objects visually or haptically and then received a recognition test with categorically similar foils in the...
Detecting the Presence of a Singleton Involves Focal Attention
It has been claimed that the detection of a feature singleton can be based on activity in a feature map that allows coarse coding that something unique is present in the visual field. In the present study, participants detected the presence or absence...
Do Binding Deficits Account for Age-Related Decline in Visual Working Memory?
Remembering visual material, such as objects, faces, and spatial locations, over a short period of time (seconds) becomes more difficult as we age. We investigated whether these deficits could be explained by a simple reduction in visual working memory...
Enhancement of Bistable Perception Associated with Visual Stimulus Rivalry
Rapid, repetitive exchange of dissimilar, rival stimuli between the two eyes can produce slow alternations in perceptual dominance. This phenomenon, called stimulus rivalry, is potentially important for studying resolution of visual conflict associated...
Exemplars and Prototypes in Natural Language Concepts: A Typicality-Based Evaluation
Are natural language categories represented by instances of the category or by a summary representation? We used an exemplar model and a prototype model, both derived within the framework of the generalized context model (Nosofsky, 1984, 1986), to predict...
Extrafoveal Processing of Objects in a Naming Task: Evidence from Word Probe Experiments
In two experiments, we investigated the processing of extrafoveal objects in a double-object naming task. On most trials, participants named two objects; but on some trials, the objects were replaced shortly after trial onset by a written word probe,...
Eye Movements during Scene Viewing: Evidence for Mixed Control of Fixation Durations
Recent behavioral and computational research on eye movement control during scene viewing has focused on where the eyes move. However, fixations also differ in their durations, and when the eyes move may be another important indicator of perceptual and...
Eye Movements Enhance Memory for Individuals Who Are Strongly Right-Handed and Harm It for Individuals Who Are Not
Subjects who make repetitive saccadic eye movements before a memory test subsequently exhibit superior retrieval in comparison with subjects who do not move their eyes. It has been proposed that eye movements enhance retrieval by increasing interaction...
I Know Your Face but Not Where I Saw You: Context Memory Is Impaired for Other-Race Faces
People are more likely to falsely identify a face of another race than a face of their own race. When witnesses make identifications, they often need to remember where they have previously encountered a face. Failure to remember the context of an encounter...
Is the Influence of Working Memory Capacity on High-Level Cognition Mediated by Complexity or Resource-Dependent Elementary Processes?
The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of working memory (WM) in elementary activities and the nature of the mechanisms mediating the influence of WM capacity on high-level cognition. We demonstrate that even elementary activities such...
Latent Structure in Measures of Associative, Semantic, and Thematic Knowledge
There has been much debate about the relation between knowledge for meaning (semantic memory) and knowledge for words in context (associative memory). Many measures of that knowledge exist, but do they all measure the same thing? In this study, scaling,...
Locating Attractiveness in the Face Space: Faces Are More Attractive When Closer to Their Group Prototype
Face attractiveness relates positively to the mathematical averageness of a face, but how close attractive faces of varying groups are to their own and to other-group prototypes in the face space remains unclear. In two studies, we modeled the locations...
Meanings, Propositions, and Verbs
The event template for a verb is a lexical representation of the type of event that the verb can denote. Manner of motion verbs have a simple template: An entity is engaged in a manner of motion activity (e.g., walk). Change of location verbs have a...
Object Manipulability Affects Children's and Adults' Conceptual Processing
Research on kinds of concepts indicates that children use perceptual and functional information differently to form natural and artifact concepts. Beyond object domain, object manipulability appears to be a decisive factor in adult conceptual processing....
Putting to a Bigger Hole: Golf Performance Relates to Perceived Size
When people are engaged in a skilled behavior, such as occurs in sports, their perceptions relate optical information to their performance. In the present research, we demonstrate the effects of performance on size perception in golfers. We found that...
Reduced Blocking as a Result of Increasing the Number of Blocking Cues
Weak behavioral control (blocking) occurs when a target stimulus (X) is paired with an outcome in the presence of a well-established signal for the outcome (i.e., a blocking stimulus). Conventional Pavlovian conditioning theories explain this effect...
Rehearsal in Immediate Serial Recall
We report for the first time overt rehearsal data in immediate serial recall (ISR) undertaken at three presentation rates (1, 2.5, and 5 sec/word). Two groups of participants saw lists of six words for ISR and were required either to engage in overt...
Same/different Discrimination Learning with Trial-Unique Stimuli
A long-standing issue in same/different discrimination learning concerns the possible role of individual stimulus memory through repeated presentation. The aim of eliminating any effect of repetition prompted us to devise a new method for generating...
Spacing and the Transition from Calculation to Retrieval
Many arithmetic problems can be solved in two ways-by a calculation involving several steps and by direct retrieval of the answer. With practice on particular problems, memory retrieval tends to supplant calculation-an important aspect of skill learning....
Superiority of Variable to Repeated Practice in Transfer on Anagram Solution
Previous research in motor learning shows that practicing variations of a task (variable practice) leads to better transfer than does repeatedly practicing the exact same task (repeated practice). In contrast, research on priming using verbal materials...
The Importance of Knowledge in Vivid Text Memory: An Individual-Differences Investigation of Recollection and Familiarity
The goal of this study was to examine how individual variation in readers' skills and, in particular, their background knowledge about a text are related to text memory. Recollection and familiarity estimates were obtained from remember and know judgments...
The Preferred Level of Face Categorization Depends on Discriminability
People usually categorize objects more quickly at the basic level (e.g., "dog") than at the subordinate (e.g., "collie") or superordinate (e.g., "animal") levels. Notable exceptions to this rule include objects of expertise, faces, or atypical objects...
Visible Embodiment: Gestures as Simulated Action
Spontaneous gestures that accompany speech are related to both verbal and spatial processes. We argue that gestures emerge from perceptual and motor simulations that underlie embodied language and mental imagery. We first review current thinking about...