Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Provides broad range of topics in all areas of experimental psychology. The journal publishes theory and review articles, reports on experimental work, and coverage of methods in all areas.

Articles from Vol. 15, No. 6, December

A Hierarchical Approach for Fitting Curves to Response Time Measurements
Understanding how response time (RT) changes with manipulations has been critical in distinguishing among theories in cognition. It is well known that aggregating data distorts functional relationships (e.g., Estes, 1956). Less well appreciated is a...
Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Hierarchical Response Time Models
Hierarchical (or multilevel) statistical models have become increasingly popular in psychology in the last few years. In this article, we consider the application of multilevel modeling to the ex-Gaussian, a popular model of response times. We compare...
Empirical and Theoretical Limits on Lag Recency in Free Recall
One widely accepted empirical regularity in free recall holds that when people successively transition from report of one list item to another, they prefer transitions across short lags (e.g., by reporting items from adjacent serial positions) to transitions...
EZ Does It! Extensions of the EZ-Diffusion Model
In this rejoinder, we address two of Ratcliff's main concerns with respect to the EZ-diffusion model (Ratcliff, 2008). First, we introduce "robust-EZ," a mixture model approach to achieve robustness against the presence of response contaminants that...
Framing Effects under Cognitive Load: The Role of Working Memory in Risky Decisions
Framing effects occur in a wide range of laboratory and natural decision contexts, but the underlying processes that produce framing effects are not well understood. We explored the role of working memory (WM) in framing by manipulating WM loads during...
He Said, She Said: Episodic Retrieval Induces Conflict Adaptation in an Auditory Stroop Task
People respond more slowly if an irrelevant feature of a target stimulus is incompatible with the relevant feature or the correct response. Such compatibility effects are often reduced in trials following an incompatible trial, which has been taken to...
Hold It! Memory Affects Attentional Dwell Time
The allocation of attention, including the initial orienting and the subsequent dwell time, is affected by several bottom-up and top-down factors. How item memory affects these processes, however, remains unclear. Here, we investigated whether item memory...
Improving Performance through Implementation Intentions: Are Preexisting Response Biases Replaced?
Commonly, the focus of a planned behavior is to attain some future goal. An alternative to this type of goal-focused, or goal-oriented, strategy is to emphasize the action required to meet the goal rather than to emphasize the goal itself. Previous research...
Inhibition of Task Set: Converging Evidence from Task Choice in the Voluntary Task-Switching Paradigm
This study looked for evidence of task-set inhibition in a voluntary task-switching paradigm. Participants performed one of three tasks on a digit: parity (even or odd), size (less than or greater than 5), or distance (near or far from 5). On each trial,...
Inventing Stories: Forcing Witnesses to Fabricate Entire Fictitious Events Leads to Freely Reported False Memories
Studies of the forced fabrication effect have shown that participant witnesses are prone to developing false memories for specific items or details that they have been forced to fabricate earlier (e.g., what type of hat someone wore). Building on these...
NoA's Ark: Influence of the Number of Associates in Visual Word Recognition
The main aim of this study was to explore the extent to which the number of associates of a word (NoA) influences lexical access, in four tasks that focus on different processes of visual word recognition: lexical decision, reading aloud, progressive...
Own- and Other-Race Categorization of Faces by Race, Gender, and Age
We investigated how visual experience with faces of a particular race affects subordinate group-level categorizations in Chinese and Israeli participants living in the respective countries. Categorization of faces by race, gender, and age was examined...
Reaching While Walking: Reaching Distance Costs More Than Walking Distance
Surprisingly little is known about how people plan and control everyday physical actions, such as walking along and picking up objects. In order to explore this topic, we conducted an experiment in which university students were asked to pick up a common...
Recognizing Faces across Continents: The Effect of Within-Race Variations on the Own-Race Bias in Face Recognition
People are better at recognizing faces of their own race than faces of other racial groups. This own-race bias (ORB) in face recognition manifests in some studies as a full crossover interaction between race of observer and race of face, but in others...
Relative Fluency and Illusions of Recognition Memory
A hallmark of the experience of perceptual fluency is the sense that a familiar stimulus seems to pop out from its background, such as when one notices the face of a friend in a crowd of strangers. This experience suggests that fluency-based illusions...
Role of Selective Attention in Artificial Grammar Learning
To investigate the role of selective attention in artificial grammar (AG) learning, participants were presented with "GLOCAL" strings-that is, chains of compound global and local letters. The global and local levels instantiated different grammars. The...
Seeing What We Know and Understand: How Knowledge Shapes Perception
Expertise in object recognition, as in bird watching or X-ray specialization, is based on extensive perceptual experience and in-depth semantic knowledge. Although it has been shown that rich perceptual experience shapes elementary perception and higher...
Semantic Processing in "Associative" False Memory
We studied the semantic properties of a class of illusions, of which the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm is the most prominent example, in which subjects falsely remember words that are associates of studied words. We analyzed DRM materials for...
So Many Options, So Little Time: The Roles of Association and Competition in Underdetermined Responding
How do we make decisions when faced with multiple options? In the domain of language, some evidence suggests that we exert cognitive control in order to respond in such underdetermined situations when a good option is hard to find but not when we must...
Speaker Overestimation of Communication Effectiveness and Fear of Negative Evaluation: Being Realistic Is Unrealistic
Speakers systematically overestimate their communication effectiveness (Keysar & Henly, 2002). We argue that doing so is adaptive, reducing the risk of social anxiety and withdrawal from social situations. This hypothesis was tested by having speakers...
Telephone Conversation Impairs Sustained Visual Attention Via a Central Bottleneck
Recent research has shown that holding telephone conversations disrupts one's driving ability. We asked whether this effect could be attributed to a visual attention impairment. In Experiment 1, participants conversed on a telephone or listened to a...
Testing Whether Gaze Cues and Arrow Cues Produce Reflexive or Volitional Shifts of Attention
It has been suggested that two types of uninformative central cues produce reflexive orienting: gaze and arrow cues. Using the criterion that voluntary shifts of attention facilitate both response speed and perceptual accuracy, whereas reflexive shifts...
That's the Man Who Did It, or Was It a Woman? Actor Similarity and Binding Errors in Event Memory
Mistakes in eyewitness identification frequently occur when incorrect associations are made between a familiar person and the actions of another person. The present research demonstrates that actors do not need to be similar in appearance for such conjunction...
The Effect of Gaze on Gaze Direction While Looking at Art
In highly controlled cuing experiments, conspecific gaze direction has powerful effects on an observer's attention. We explored the generality of this effect by using paintings in which the gaze direction of a key character had been carefully manipulated....
The EZ Diffusion Method: Too EZ?
The diffusion model (Ratcliff, 1978) for fast two-choice decisions has been successful in a number of domains. Wagenmakers, van der Maas, and Grasman (2007) proposed a new method for fitting the model to data ("EZ") that is simpler than the standard...
The Impact of Discredited Evidence
How do people revise their beliefs when evidence is discredited? In three studies, mock jurors read simplified criminal cases and then judged the probability that a suspect was guilty on the basis of sequentially presented evidence. Study 1 showed an...
The Role of a Change Heuristic in Judgments of Sound Duration
The present study investigated whether the quality of a frequency change within a sound (i.e., smooth vs. abrupt) would influence perception of its duration. In three experiments, participants were presented with two consecutive sounds on each of a series...
The Turple Effect Is Modulated by Base Word Frequency: Implications for Models of Lexical and Semantic Access
People who are asked to classify whether words presented visually belong to the category of animals respond to nonwords derived from animal names more slowly than they do to nonwords derived from nonanimal names. This is known as the turple effect (Forster,...
The Use of Heuristics in Intuitive Mathematical Judgment
Anecdotal evidence points to the use of beauty as an indication of truth in mathematical problem solving. In the two experiments of the present study, we examined the use of heuristics and tested the assumption that participants use symmetry as a cue...
Tracking the Time Course of Phonetic Cue Integration during Spoken Word Recognition
Speech perception requires listeners to integrate multiple cues that each contribute to judgments about a phonetic category. Classic studies of trading relations assessed the weights attached to each cue but did not explore the time course of cue integration....