Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Provides broad range of topics in all areas of experimental psychology. The journal publishes theory and review articles, reports on experimental work, and coverage of methods in all areas.

Articles from Vol. 16, No. 2, April

Adjustments to Recent and Frequent Conflict Reflect Two Distinguishable Mechanisms
In conflict paradigms such as the Eriksen flanker task, interference has been found to be reduced under conditions of recent and/or frequent cognitive conflict. Using a modified flanker task, we investigated the interplay of conflict recency and conflict...
Attentional Enhancement during Multiple-Object Tracking
What is the role of attention in multiple-object tracking? Does attention enhance target representations, suppress distractor representations, or both? It is difficult to ask this question in a purely behavioral paradigm without altering the very attentional...
Bayesian T Tests for Accepting and Rejecting the Null Hypothesis
Progress in science often comes from discovering invariances in relationships among variables; these invariances often correspond to null hypotheses. As is commonly known, it is not possible to state evidence for the null hypothesis in conventional significance...
Can Beauty Be Ignored? Effects of Facial Attractiveness on Covert Attention
Facial beauty has important social and biological implications. Research has shown that people tend to look longer at attractive than at unattractive faces. However, little is known about whether an attractive face presented outside foveal vision can...
Does Response Interference Contribute to Face Composite Effects?
Holistic processing of faces can be measured as a failure of selective attention to one face-half under instructions to ignore the other face-half in a naming or same/different matching task. But is interference from the irrelevant half due to response...
Electrophysiological Correlates of High-Level Perception during Spatial Navigation
We studied the electrophysiological basis of object recognition by recording scalp electroencephalograms while participants played a virtual-reality taxi driver game. Participants searched for passengers and stores during virtual navigation in simulated...
Erratum
Burnham, B. R., & Neely, J. A. (2007). Involuntary capture of visual-spatial attention occurs for intersections, both real and "imagined." Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14(4), 735-741.Panel A (Intersection Target) for Experiment 2 in Figure...
Evidence for a Contact-Based Explanation of the Own-Age Bias in Face Recognition
Previous research has shown that we recognize faces similar in age to ourselves better than older or younger faces (e.g., Wright & Stroud, 2002). This study investigated whether this own-age bias could be explained by the contact hypothesis used...
Expert Image Analysts Show Enhanced Visual Processing in Change Detection
Expertise facilitates change detection performance, but the neural underpinnings of these benefits are unknown. Expert image analysts showed larger change-related ERP effects between about 100-200 msec after stimulus onset than did novices, which correlated...
Facilitated Pointing to Remembered Objects in Front: Evidence for Egocentric Retrieval or for Spatial Priming?
Recent spatial memory theories propose that long-term spatial memories are retrieved egocentrically. One source of evidence comes from imagined perspective taking, in which participants learn an object layout, later imagine standing at one object and...
Facilitation of Learning Spatial Relations among Locations by Visual Cues: Implications for Theoretical Accounts of Spatial Learning
Human participants searched in a real environment or interactive 3-D virtual environment open field for four hidden goal locations arranged in a 2 × 2 square configuration in a 5 × 5 matrix of raised bins. The participants were randomly assigned to one...
How Many Exemplars Are Used? Explorations with the Rex Leopold I Model
The goal of this research is to test the hypothesis that a category is not necessarily represented by all observed exemplars, but by a reduced subset of these exemplars. To test this hypothesis, we made use of a study reported by Nosofsky, Clark, and...
Integers Do Not Automatically Activate Their Quantity Representation
Researchers have generally come to the conclusion that integers automatically activate the quantity they symbolize and that this quantity dominates responding. I conducted a strong test of this hypothesis with two numerical same/different experiments....
Learning to Ignore: Acquisition of Sustained Attentional Suppression
We examined whether the selection mechanisms committed to the suppression of ignored stimuli can be modified by experience to produce a sustained, rather than transient, change in behavior. Subjects repeatedly ignored the shape of stimuli, while attending...
Making Psycholinguistics Musical: Self-Paced Reading Time Evidence for Shared Processing of Linguistic and Musical Syntax
Linguistic processing, especially syntactic processing, is often considered a hallmark of human cognition; thus, the domain specificity or domain generality of syntactic processing has attracted considerable debate. The present experiments address this...
Neighborhood Effects in Spelling in Adults
The participants were asked to spell aloud words for which there were either many orthographically similar words (a dense neighborhood) or few orthographically similar words (a sparse neighborhood). Words with a dense neighborhood were spelled faster...
Nonautomatic Emotion Perception in a Dual-Task Situation
Are emotions perceived automatically? Two psychological refractory period experiments were conducted to ascertain whether emotion perception requires central attentional resources. Task 1 required an auditory discrimination (tone vs. noise), whereas...
Orientation Dependence of Spatial Memory Acquired from Auditory Experience
The present study investigated whether memory for a room-sized spatial layout learned through auditory localization of sounds exhibits orientation dependence similar to that observed for spatial memory acquired from stationary viewing of the environment....
Orthographic Influences in Spoken Word Recognition: The Consistency Effect in Semantic and Gender Categorization Tasks
According to current models, spoken word recognition is driven by the phonological properties of the speech signal. However, several studies have suggested that orthographic information also influences recognition in adult listeners. In particular, it...
Perceptual Learning in Auditory Temporal Discrimination: No Evidence for a Cross-Modal Transfer to the Visual Modality
Perceptual learning was used to study potential transfer effects in a duration discrimination task. Subjects were trained to discriminate between two empty temporal intervals marked with auditory beeps, using a two-alternative forced choice paradigm....
Perceptual Load Modulates Attentional Capture by Abrupt Onsets
The abrupt appearance of a new object captures attention, even when the object is task irrelevant. These findings suggest that abrupt onsets capture attention in a stimulus-driven manner and are not susceptible to top-down influences on attentional control....
P^sub Rep^ Misestimates the Probability of Replication
The probability of "replication," p^sub rep^, has been proposed as a means of identifying replicable and reliable effects in the psychological sciences. We conduct a basic test of p^sub rep^ that reveals that it misestimates the true probability of replication,...
Race-Based Perceptual Asymmetries Underlying Face Processing in Infancy
Adults process other-race faces differently than own-race faces. For instance, a single other-race face in an array of own-race faces attracts Caucasians' attention, but a single own-race face among other-race faces does not. This perceptual asymmetry...
Reading Habits for Both Words and Numbers Contribute to the SNARC Effect
This study compared the spatial representation of numbers in three groups of adults: Canadians, who read both English words and Arabic numbers from left to right; Palestinians, who read Arabic words and Arabic-Indic numbers from right to left; and Israelis,...
Reconceptualizing Inhibition of Return as Habituation of the Orienting Response
Inhibition of return (IOR) is an effect on spatial attention whereby reaction times to a target presented at a location where a stimulus had recently been presented are increased, as opposed to when a target is presented at a new location. Despite early...
Sequential Adjustments before and after Partial Errors
In choice reaction time tasks, subjects speed up before making an error, but slow down afterward to prevent the occurrence of a new error. In some trials, the correct response is preceded by an incorrect electromyographic (EMG) activation too small to...
Spatial Negative Priming in Bilingualism
Balanced bilinguals have been shown to have an enhanced ability to inhibit distracting information. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that the bilinguals' efficiency in inhibitory control can be advantageous in some conditions, but disadvantageous...
Super-Recognizers: People with Extraordinary Face Recognition Ability
We tested 4 people who claimed to have significantly better than ordinary face recognition ability. Exceptional ability was confirmed in each case. On two very different tests of face recognition, all 4 experimental subjects performed beyond the range...
The Effects of Individual Differences and Task Difficulty on Inattentional Blindness
Most studies of inattentional blindness-the failure to notice an unexpected object when attention is focused elsewhere-have focused on one critical trial. For that trial, noticing the unexpected object might be a result of random variability, so that...
Three-Quarter Views Are Subjectively Good Because Object Orientation Is Uncertain
Because the objects that surround us are three-dimensional, their appearance and our visual perception of them change depending on an object's orientation relative to a viewpoint. One of the most remarkable effects of object orientation is that viewers...
What Is Pressure? Evidence for Social Pressure as a Type of Regulatory Focus
Previous research (Markman, Maddox, & Worthy, 2006) suggests that pressure leads to choking when one is learning to classify items on the basis of an explicit rule, but it leads to excelling when one is learning to classify items on the basis of...