Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Provides broad range of topics in all areas of experimental psychology. The journal publishes theory and review articles, reports on experimental work, and coverage of methods in all areas.

Articles from Vol. 16, No. 4, August

Aging and Recognition Memory for Emotional Words: A Bias Account
The present study investigated age-related differences in the locus of the emotional enhancement effect in recognition memory. Younger and older adults studied an emotion-heterogeneous list followed by a forced choice recognition memory test. Luce's...
Early Morphological Processing Is Morphosemantic and Not Simply Morpho-Orthographic: A Violation of Form-Then-Meaning Accounts of Word Recognition
Many studies have suggested that a word's orthographic form must be processed before its meaning becomes available. Some interpret the (null) finding of equal facilitation after semantically transparent and opaque morphologically related primes in early...
Effects of Free Food Deliveries and Temporal Contiguity on Choice under Concurrent-Chain Schedules
Eight pigeons responded in a concurrent chain with variable-interval (VI) 10-sec and VI 20-sec terminal links. Free food deliveries were then added to the initial links according to a variable-time (VT) 20-sec schedule in two conditions that differed...
Effects of Laterality and Pitch Height of an Auditory Accessory Stimulus on Horizontal Response Selection: The Simon Effect and the SMARC Effect
In the present article, we investigated the effects of pitch height and the presented ear (laterality) of an auditory stimulus, irrelevant to the ongoing visual task, on horizontal response selection. Performance was better when the response and the...
Encoding Strategy and Not Visual Working Memory Capacity Correlates with Intelligence
There is conflicting evidence on whether the capacity of visual working memory (VWM) reflects a central capacity limit that also influences intelligence. We propose that encoding strategy and, more specifically, attentional selection, underlie the correlation...
Extracommunicative Functions of Language: Verbal Interference Causes Selective Categorization Impairments
In addition to its communicative functions, language has been argued to have a variety of extracommunicative functions, as assessed by its causal involvement in putatively nonlinguistic tasks. In the present work, I argue that language may be critically...
Goal-Driven Attentional Capture by Invisible Colors: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials
We combined event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and behavioral measures to test whether subliminal visual stimuli can capture attention in a goal-dependent manner. Participants searched for visual targets defined by a specific color. Search displays...
Pathway Control in Visual Word Processing: Converging Evidence from Recognition Memory
The extent to which readers can exert strategic control over oral reading processes is a matter of debate. According to the pathway control hypothesis, the relative contributions of the lexical and nonlexical pathways can be modulated by the characteristics...
Sleep Deprivation Affects Multiple Distinct Cognitive Processes
Sleep deprivation adversely affects the ability to perform cognitive tasks, but theories range from predicting an overall decline in cognitive functioning (because of reduced stability in attentional networks) to claiming specific deficits in executive...
Swinging into Thought: Directed Movement Guides Insight in Problem Solving
Can directed actions unconsciously influence higher order cognitive processing? We investigated how movement interventions affected participants' ability to solve a classic insight problem. The participants attempted to solve Maier's two-string problem...
The Bilingual Advantage in Novel Word Learning
The present study examined whether bilingualism facilitates acquisition of novel words in adults with different language histories. Word-learning performance was tested in monolingual English speakers, early English-Spanish bilinguals, and early English-Mandarin...
The Effect of Frequency of Shared Features on Judgments of Semantic Similarity
Insight into the structure of conceptual knowledge can be gleaned by examining how statistical regularities in the semantic structure of concepts affect semantic processing. Two similarity judgment experiments revealed that pairs of concepts sharing...
The Influence of Only and Even on Online Semantic Interpretation
Focus particles such as only and even indicate that the focused element(s) in a sentence should be contrasted with a set of contextually defined alternatives. Only indicates that properties assigned to the focus set are not shared by elements of the...
The Relationship between Counterfactual Thinking and Emotional Reactions to Event Outcomes: Does One Account Fit All?
By enabling a comparison between what is and what might have been, counterfactual thoughts amplify our emotional responses to bad outcomes. Well-known demonstrations such as the action effect (the tendency to attribute most regret to a character whose...
The Role of Attentional Networks in Voluntary Task Switching
Coordination of task choice and performance in multitask environments likely involves attentional processes. Subjects completed the Attention Network Test (ANT) and a voluntary task-switching procedure. Task choice, but not task performance, was correlated...
The Spatiotemporal Distinctiveness of Direct Causation
The launching effect, in which people judge one object to have caused another to immediately move after contact, is often described as the prototype of direct causation. The special status of this interaction may be due to its psychophysical distinctiveness,...
Visual Prior Entry for Foreground Figures
Attended stimuli reach perceptual-level processes before unattended stimuli do, a finding that is referred to as visual prior entry. We asked whether a similar effect arises for salient objects (foreground figures) in a visual scene. If prior entry holds...
What Is the Probability of Replicating a Statistically Significant Effect?
If an initial experiment produces a statistically significant effect, what is the probability that this effect will be replicated in a follow-up experiment? I argue that this seemingly fundamental question can be interpreted in two very different ways...