Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Provides broad range of topics in all areas of experimental psychology. The journal publishes theory and review articles, reports on experimental work, and coverage of methods in all areas.

Articles from Vol. 15, No. 2, April

Age-of-Acquisition Effects on Oral Reading in Chinese
The age of acquisition (AoA) of a word has an effect on oral reading. The mapping hypothesis (Zevin & Seidenberg, 2002, 2004) assumes that AoA effects on oral reading are a consequence of arbitrary mappings between input and output in the lexical...
Auditory Memory Can Be Object Based
Identifying how memories are organized remains a fundamental issue in psychology. Previous work has shown that visual short-term memory is organized according to the object of origin, with participants being better at retrieving multiple pieces of information...
Capturing Spatial Attention with Multisensory Cues
We assessed the influence of multisensory interactions on the exogenous orienting of spatial attention by comparing the ability of auditory, tactile, and audiotactile exogenous cues to capture visuospatial attention under conditions of no perceptual...
Context and the Activation of Predictive Inferences
Previous research has demonstrated that the activation of predictive inferences can be affected both by the immediately preceding context and by the information contained in an earlier portion of a passage. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the same immediate...
Context Attributes in Memory Are Bound to Item Information, but Not to One Another
In four experiments, we compared binding between item and context information with binding between different types of context information. Participants studied line drawings of common objects that appeared in both different colors and different locations....
Dissecting the Symbolic Distance Effect: Comparison and Priming Effects in Numerical and Nonnumerical Orders
When participants are asked to compare two stimuli, responses are slower for stimuli close to each other on the relevant dimension than for stimuli further apart. Previously, it has been proposed that this comparison distance effect originates from overlap...
Distortions in Location Memory
Memory for the location of a briefly presented target is often distorted in systematic ways. When people remember dot locations within a circular space, they typically show memory biases that appear to reflect a categorical strategy. However, memory...
Effects of Working Memory Load on Lexical-Semantic Encoding in Language Production
Some models of lexical access in language production postulate that lexical-semantic encoding is driven bottom-up, by the conceptual input, and top-down, by a representation of the task. In the cyclic semantic blocking paradigm, participants repeatedly...
Expectation Affects Verbal Judgments but Not Reaches to Visually Perceived Egocentric Distances
Two response measures for reporting visually perceived egocentric distances-verbal judgments and blind manual reaches-were compared using a within-trial methodology. The expected range of possible target distances was manipulated by instructing the subjects...
Feature Integration without Visual Attention: Evidence from the Correlated Flankers Task
It is widely assumed that the separable features of visual objects, such as their colors and shapes, require attention to be integrated. However, the evidence in favor of this claim comes from experiments in which the colors and shapes of objects would...
First Possession: An Assumption Guiding Inferences about Who Owns What
How do we determine who owns what? This article reports evidence indicating that we typically assume that the first person who possesses an object is its owner. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants read cartoons in which two children each take a turn...
Frequency Interpretation of Ambiguous Statistical Information Facilitates Bayesian Reasoning
The idea that naturally sampled frequencies facilitate performance in statistical reasoning tasks because they are a cognitively privileged representational format has been challenged by findings that similarly structured numbers presented as chances...
Generalization and Similarity in Exemplar Models of Categorization: Insights from Machine Learning
Exemplar theories of categorization depend on similarity for explaining subjects' ability to generalize to new stimuli. A major criticism of exemplar theories concerns their lack of abstraction mechanisms and thus, seemingly, of generalization ability....
Instability in Memory Phenomena: A Common Puzzle and a Unifying Explanation
In mixed lists, stable free recall advantages are observed for encoding conditions that are unusual, bizarre, or attract extensive individual item elaboration relative to more common encoding conditions; but this recall advantage is often eliminated...
Instruction Effects in Task Switching
The present study examined the effect of instructions on sequential task preparation using a cuing paradigm with three tasks. All task transitions were predictable, whereas task identity was unpredictable in switches but predictable in repetitions. In...
Look, No Hands: A Perceptual Task Shows That Number Magnitude Induces Shifts of Attention
The mental representation of numbers along a line oriented left to right affects spatial cognition, facilitating responses in the ipsilateral hemispace (the spatial-numerical association of response codes [SNARC] effect). We investigated whether the...
Mechanisms Underlying Heightened Risk Taking in Adolescents as Compared with Adults
Self-report surveys and behavioral tasks indicate greater risk-taking behavior in adolescents as compared with adults. However, the underlying causes of these behavioral differences remain unclear. The present study examined the possibility that adolescents...
Object- and Feature-Based Priming in Visual Search
Two contrasting accounts for priming in visual search have been proposed. The main difference between the two is the level of perceptual processing at which the priming effects are assumed to occur, whether priming is assumed to operate through the selective...
Part-List Cuing and the Dynamics of False Recall
False recall of an unpresented critical word after studying its semantic associates can be reduced substantially if the strongest and earliest-studied associates are presented as part-list cues during testing (Kimball & Bjork, 2002). To disentangle...
Perceptual Organization Based on Illusory Regions in Infancy
Prior research indicates that, like adults, infants use enclosed regions to group elements. It is not clear whether infants or adults can use regions that have to be inferred from illusory contours to group elements. We examined whether 3- to 4-month-olds...
Predicting World Cup Results: Do Goals Seem More Likely When They Pay Off?
Bar-Hillel and Budescu (1995) failed to find a desirability bias in probability estimation. The World Cup soccer tournament provided an opportunity to revisit the phenomenon in a context in which desirability biases are notoriously rampant. Participants...
Relative Judgments Affect Assessments of Stimulus Duration
Humans were trained on two independent temporal discriminations, with correct choice dependent on the initial stimulus duration. In Experiment 1, the durations were 1.0 and 4.0 sec, with one set of choice stimuli, and 2.0 and 8.0 sec, with a different...
Semantic Organization of Study Materials Has Opposite Effects on Recognition and Recall
It has been well established for several decades that semantic organization of study materials greatly enhances recall by facilitating access to information during retrieval. However, the effect of organization on recognition, and its relationship to...
Spatial Memories of Virtual Environments: How Egocentric Experience, Intrinsic Structure, and Extrinsic Structure Interact
Previous research has uncovered three primary cues that influence spatial memory organization: egocentric experience, intrinsic structure (object defined), and extrinsic structure (environment defined). In the present experiments, we assessed the relative...
Spatial Separation between Targets Constrains Maintenance of Attention on Multiple Objects
Humans are limited in their ability to maintain multiple attentional foci. In attentive tracking of moving objects, performance declines as the number of tracked targets increases. Previous studies have interpreted such reduction in terms of a limit...
The FLMP STMPed
Massaro and Chen (2008) offer a commentary ostensibly on a recent article by Galantucci, Fowler, and Turvey (2006). Our article provided an evaluation of Alvin Liberman's motor theory of speech perception. We considered it timely to evaluate the motor...
The Motor Theory of Speech Perception Revisited
Galantucci, Fowler, and Turvey (2006) have claimed that perceiving speech is perceiving gestures and that the motor system is recruited for perceiving speech. We make the counter argument that perceiving speech is not perceiving gestures, that the motor...
Time Flies like an Arrow: Space-Time Compatibility Effects Suggest the Use of a Mental Timeline
The concept of time is elusive to direct observation, yet it pervades almost every aspect of our daily lives. How is time represented, given that it cannot be perceived directly? Metaphoric mapping theory assumes that abstract concepts such as time are...
Visual Events Modulated by Sound in Repetition Blindness
Repetition blindness (RB; Kanwisher, 1987) is the term used to describe people's failure to detect or report an item that is repeated in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream. Although RB is, by definition, a visual deficit, whether it is...
Visual Word Recognition without Central Attention: Evidence for Greater Automaticity with Greater Reading Ability
The present study examined individual differences in the automaticity of visual word recognition. Specifically, we examined whether people can recognize words while central attention is devoted to another task and how this ability depends on reading...
Were You Paying Attention to Where You Looked? the Role of Executive Working Memory in Visual Search
Recent evidence has indicated that performing a working memory task that loads executive working memory leads to less efficient visual search (Han & Kim, 2004). We explored the role that executive functioning plays in visual search by examining the...
What Form of Memory Underlies Novelty Preferences?
Novelty preferences (longer fixations on new stimuli than on previously presented stimuli) are widely used to assess memory in nonverbal populations, such as human infants and experimental animals, yet important questions remain about the nature of the...
Why Is Working Memory Related to Fluid Intelligence?
Nearly 1,000 adults performed a battery of cognitive tests and working memory tasks requiring simultaneous storage and processing of information. Because the amount of to-be-remembered information, or set size, varied randomly across trials, the relation...