Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Provides broad range of topics in all areas of experimental psychology. The journal publishes theory and review articles, reports on experimental work, and coverage of methods in all areas.

Articles from Vol. 12, No. 1, February

Acquired Distinctiveness and Equivalence in Human Discrimination Learning: Evidence for an Attentional Process
In a first stage of training, participants learned to associate four visual cues (two different colors and two different shapes) with verbal labels. For Group S, one label was applied to both colors and another to both shapes; for Group D, one label...
A Model of Exact Small-Number Representation
To account for the size effect in numerical comparison, three assumptions about the internal structure of the mental number line (e.g., Dehaene, 1992) have been proposed. These are magnitude coding (e.g., Zorzi & Butterworth, 1999), compressed scaling...
Basic Processes in Reading: Is Visual Word Recognition Obligatory?
Visual word recognition is commonly argued to be automatic in the sense that it is obligatory and ballistic. The present experiments combined Stroop and visual search paradigms to provide a novel test of this claim. An array of three, five, or seven...
Contextual Control over Lexical and Sublexical Routines When Reading English Aloud
Are the processes responsible for reading aloud single well-formed letter strings under contextual control? Despite the widespread contention that the answer to this question is "yes," it has been remarkably difficult to provide a compelling demonstration...
Diminutives in Child-Directed Speech Supplement Metric with Distributional Word Segmentation Cues
In two experiments, we explored whether diminutives (e.g., birdie, Patty, bootie), which are characteristic of child-directed speech in many languages, aid word segmentation by regularizing stress patterns and word endings. In an implicit learning task,...
Fixation Durations before Word Skipping in Reading
We resolve a controversy about reading fixations before word-skipping saccades which were reported as longer or shorter than control fixations in earlier studies. Our statistics are based on resampling of matched sets of fixations before skipped and...
Implicit Learning of Ignored Visual Context
Humans process a visual display more efficiently when they encounter it for a second time, showing learning of the display. This study tests whether implicit learning of complex visual contexts depends on attention. Subjects searched for a white target...
Is There a Geometric Module for Spatial Orientation? Squaring Theory and Evidence
There is evidence, beginning with Cheng (1986), that mobile animals may use the geometry of surrounding areas to reorient following disorientation. Gallistel (1990) proposed that geometry is used to compute the major or minor axes of space and suggested...
Knowledge of Resources and Competitors in Human Foraging
The allocation of human participants to resources was studied by observing the population dynamics of people interacting in real time within a common virtual world. Resources were distributed in two spatially separated pools with varying relative reinforcement...
On the Categorical Nature of the Semantic Interference Effect in the Picture-Word Interference Paradigm
Two picture-word interference experiments are reported in which the boundaries of the semantic interference effect are explored. In both experiments, participants named pictures (e.g., a picture of a car) that appeared with superimposed word distractors....
Pauses and Durations Exhibit a Serial Position Effect
This article reports evidence of two kinds of serial position effects in immediate serial recall: One involves interresponse pauses, and the other response durations. In forward and backward recall, responding was faster at initial and final positions...
Prioritization by Transients in Visual Search
There is an ongoing debate as to whether prioritizing new objects over old objects (the so-called preview benefit) is the result of top-down inhibition of old objects (i.e., visual marking; Watson & Humphreys, 1997) or attentional allocation to new...
Semantic Similarity and Immediate Serial Recall: Is There an Effect on All Trials?
In immediate serial recall, items are better recalled when they are all drawn from the same semantic category. This is usually accounted for by a two-stage retrieval-based framework, in which, at recall, long-term knowledge is used to reconstruct degraded...
Sequential Task Predictability in Task Switching
Many studies of task switching have found that a prolonged preparation time reduces switch costs. An alternative manipulation of task preparation is based on sequential task predictability, rather than preparation time. In Experiments 1 and 2 of the...
Spacing and Lag Effects in Free Recall of Pure Lists
Repeating list items leads to better recall when the repetitions are separated by several unique items than when they are presented successively; the spacing effect refers to improved recall for spaced versus successive repetition (lag > 0 vs. lag...
The Conceptual Basis of Function Learning and Extrapolation: Comparison of Rule-Based and Associative-Based Models
The purpose of this article is to provide a foundation for a more formal, systematic, and integrative approach to function learning that parallels the existing progress in category learning. First, we note limitations of existing formal theories. Next,...
The Lengthening Effect Revisited: A Reply to Prinzmetal and Wilson (1997) and Masin (1999)
In the present study, the lengthening phenomenon (Tsal & Shalev, 1996), namely, the increase in perceived length of unattended lines, was reexamined in light of criticisms by Prinzmetal and Wilson (1997) and Masin (1999). Prinzmetal and Wilson suggested...
The Power of a Story: New, Automatic Associations from a Single Reading of a Short Scenario
The implicit association test (IAT) is typically used to assess nonconscious categorization judgments that are "under control of automatically activated evaluation" (Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998, p. 1464) and that are usually considered independent...
The Role of Local and Global Properties in Comparison of Analogical Visual Scenes
Love, Rouder, and Wisniewski (1999) obtained interesting results showing that, in a same/different task on abstract visual scenes, subjects were able to process global properties quickly, even before local properties were identified. Our aim in this...
What Makes Working Memory Spans So Predictive of High-Level Cognition?
Working memory (WM) span tasks involving a complex activity performed concurrently with item retention have proven to be good predictors of high-level cognitive performance. The present study demonstrates that replacing these complex self-paced activities...
Why Is It Easier to Identify Someone Close Than Far Away?
It is a matter of common sense that a person is easier to recognize when close than when far away. A possible explanation for why this happens begins with two observations. First, the human visual system, like many image-processing devices, can be viewed...