Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Provides broad range of topics in all areas of experimental psychology. The journal publishes theory and review articles, reports on experimental work, and coverage of methods in all areas.

Articles from Vol. 13, No. 4, August

1/f Noise in Human Cognition: Is It Ubiquitous, and What Does It Mean?
Researchers in psychology are paying increasing attention to temporal correlations in performance on cognitive tasks. Recently, Thornton and Gilden (2005) introduced a spectral method for analyzing psychological time series; in particular, this method...
Additive and Interactive Effects of Word Frequency and Masked Repetition in the Lexical Decision Task
In previous studies, additive effects of masked repetition and word frequency on lexical decision latency have been reported. This additive pattern was replicated in Experiment 1 with the use of low-frequency words (range, 1-7 per million) selected at...
Aging and Individual Differences in Rapid Two-Choice Decisions
The effects of aging on performance were examined in signal detection, letter discrimination, brightness discrimination, and recognition memory, with each subject tested on all four tasks. Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model was fit to the data for each...
An Event-Based Account of Coordination Stability
Constraints underlying bimanual coordination have traditionally been explained by dynamic interactions between the effectors. However, the present experiments demonstrate that a fundamental constraint on bimanual performance is the manner in which task...
Attention Modulates the Learning of Multiple Contingencies
We employed a novel version of the serial reaction time task to test the idea that human implicit learning allows the simultaneous learning of multiple independent contingencies and that this learning may proceed in the absence of attention. Using probabilistic...
Beyond Statistical Inference: A Decision Theory for Science
Traditional null hypothesis significance testing does not yield the probability of the null or its alternative and, therefore, cannot logically ground scientific decisions. The decision theory proposed here calculates the expected utility of an effect...
Change Blindness and the Primacy of Object Appearance
A large body of work suggests that the visual system is particularly sensitive to the appearance of new objects. This is based partly on evidence from visual search studies showing that onsets capture attention whereas many other types of visual event...
Color Singleton Pop-Out Does Not Always Poop Out: An Alternative to Visual Search
Folk psychology suggests that when an observer views a scene, a unique item will stand out and draw attention to itself. This belief stands in contrast to numerous studies in visual search that have found that a unique target item (e.g., a unique color)...
Cross-Domain Transfer of Quantitative Discriminations: Is It All a Matter of Proportion?
Meck and Church (1983) estimated a 5:1 scale factor relating the mental magnitudes representing number to the mental magnitudes representing duration. We repeated their experiment with human subjects. We obtained transfer regardless of the objective...
Distraction as a Determinant of Processing Speed
Processing speed is often described as a fundamental resource determining individual (e.g., I.Q.) and group (e.g., developmental) differences in cognition. However, most tests that measure speed present many items on a single page. Because many groups...
Erratum
Galantucci, B., Fowler, C. A., & 1/f Turvey, M. T. (2006). The motor theory of speech perception reviewed. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13(3), 361-377.The corrected text printed below, also available in the online version of the journal (www.psychonomic.org/JOL/),...
Evidence for Time-Based Models of Free Recall
Is memory temporally organized? According to temporal distinctiveness models of memory, temporally isolated items should be better remembered than temporally crowded items in free recall tasks. Here, we tested this class of model by varying the temporal...
Expertise and Its Embodiment: Examining the Impact of Sensorimotor Skill Expertise on the Representation of Action-Related Text
In two experiments, we explored how novice and expert athletes represent the everyday and sport-specific objects and actions that they read about. Novice and expert ice hockey players (Experiment 1) and football players (Experiment 2) read sentences...
Extinction of Conditioned Inhibition through Nonreinforced Presentation of the Inhibitor
In previous studies that have tried to extinguish conditioned inhibition through nonreinforced presentations of the inhibitor, researchers have repeatedly failed to find evidence for such extinction. The present study revealed that extinction can be...
Feature Bindings Endure without Attention: Evidence from an Explicit Recall Task
Are integrated objects the unit of capacity of visual working memory, or is continued attention needed to maintain bindings between independently stored features? In a delayed recall task, participants reported the color and shape of a probed item from...
Grounding the Figure: Surface Attachment Influences Figure-Ground Organization
We investigated whether the lower region effect on figure-ground organization (Vecera, Vogel, & Woodman, 2002) would generalize to contextual depth planes in vertical orientations, as is predicted by a theoretical analysis based on the ecological...
Humans' Folk Physics Is Not Enough to Explain Variations in Their Tool-Using Behavior
Two experiments examined adult humans' folk physics (i.e., their naturally occurring and spontaneous understanding of the physical world) using variations of trap-table problems used to study chimpanzees' folk physics. When presented with these problems,...
Interpreting Spatial Terms Involves Simulating Interactions
Recent research in spatial language has demonstrated that the interpretation of a spatial term depends not only on the geometry of the configuration of the objects being spatially related, but also on extrageometric information, including information...
Mental Rubbernecking to Negative Information Depends on Task Context
We previously demonstrated mental rubbernecking during the simple cognitive act of refreshing a just activated representation. Participants saw two neutral and one negative word presented simultaneously and, 425 msec later, were cued to mentally refresh...
On the Time Course of Letter Perception: A Masked Priming ERP Investigation
In an experiment measuring event-related brain potentials (ERPs), single-letter targets were preceded by briefly presented masked letter primes. Name and case consistency were manipulated across primes and targets so that the prime was either the same...
Perceptual Learning in Contrast Detection: Presence and Cost of Shifts in Response Criteria
Contemporary theoretical accounts of perceptual learning typically assume that observers are either unbiased or stably biased across the course of learning. However, standard methods for estimating thresholds, as they are typically used, do not allow...
Spatial Working Memory and Inhibition of Return
Recently we showed that maintaining a location in spatial working memory affects saccadic eye movement trajectories, in that the eyes deviate away from the remembered location (Theeuwes, Olivers, & Chizk, 2005). Such saccade deviations are assumed...
Task-Irrelevant Visual Motion and Flicker Attenuate the Attentional Blink
Our reduced ability to correctly report two sequentially presented targets is seen in the robust effect known as the attentional blink (AB; Raymond, Shapiro, & Arnell, 1992). One recent report (Olivers & Nieuwenhuis, 2005) strikingly reveals...
The Effect of Novel Distractors on Performance in Focused Attention Tasks: A Cognitive-Psychophysiological Approach
In the present study, we examined whether or not novel stimuli affect performance in a focused attention task. Participants responded to a central target while an irrelevant distractor in the visual display was occasionally changed. In Experiment 1,...
The Influence of an External Symbol System on Number Parity Representation, or What's Odd about 6?
The aim of this study was to investigate whether language-specific properties influence mental number processing. German Sign Language (DGS) numbers differ from those in spoken German not only in terms of modality but also in their basic language structure....
The Planning and Execution of Short Auditory Sequences
Action planning, but not action execution, in speeded tasks is typically faster when responses and their effects are compatible than when they are incompatible. We tested whether response-effect compatibility (REC) affects the execution of music-like...
Two Noncontiguous Locations Can Be Attended Concurrently: Evidence from the Attentional Blink
When two targets (T1 and T2) are inserted in a rapid stream of visual distractors (RSVP), detection/identification accuracy of T2 is impaired at intertarget lags shorter than about 500 msec. This phenomenon, the attentional blink (AB), has been regarded...
Visual Noise Reveals Category Representations
How are categories represented in human memory? Exemplar models assume that a category is represented by individual instances from that category that have been experienced. More generally, a category might be represented by multiple templates stored...
Word Frequency and the Mixed-List Paradox in Immediate and Delayed Serial Recall
In free recall tasks, when low- and high-frequency items are mixed within the to-be-remembered lists, the usual recall advantage found for high-frequency words is eliminated or reversed. Recently, this mixed-list paradox has also been demonstrated for...