Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Provides broad range of topics in all areas of experimental psychology. The journal publishes theory and review articles, reports on experimental work, and coverage of methods in all areas.

Articles from Vol. 14, No. 4, August

A Modular Theory of Learning and Performance
We describe a theory to account for the acquisition and extinction of response rate (conditioning) and pattern (timing). This modular theory is a development of packet theory (Kirkpatrick, 2002; Kirkpatrick & Church, 2003) that adds a distinction...
"As Soon as the Bat Met the Ball, I Knew It Was Gone": Outcome Prediction, Hindsight Bias, and the Representation and Control of Action in Expert and Novice Baseball Players
A virtual-reality batting task compared novice and expert baseball players' ability to predict the outcomes of their swings as well as the susceptibility of these outcome predictions to hindsight bias-a measure of strength and resistance to distortion...
A Visual Short-Term Memory Advantage for Faces
What determines how much can be stored in visual short-term memory (VSTM)? Studies of VSTM have focused largely on stimulus-based properties such as the number or complexity of the items stored. Recent work also suggests that capacity is severely reduced...
Collaboration during Visual Search
Two experiments examine how collaboration influences visual search performance. Working with a partner or on their own, participants reported whether a target was present or absent in briefly presented search displays. We compared the search performance...
Conflict Monitoring and Feature Overlap: Two Sources of Sequential Modulations
Recent findings demonstrating that the Simon effect diminishes when the preceding trial is a noncorresponding trial led researchers to develop two alternative accounts. The conflict monitoring account argues that the automatic activation from stimulus...
Detecting Chance: A Solution to the Null Sensitivity Problem in Subliminal Priming
In many paradigms, the persuasiveness of subliminal priming relies on establishing that stimuli are undetectable. The standard significance test approach is ill-suited as null results may reflect either truly undetectable stimuli or a lack of power to...
Different Mental Representations for Place Recognition and Goal Localization
Determining one's current location and locating a goal relative to one's position are important components of successful human navigation in familiar environments. Several prominent cognitive theories of human spatial memory (e.g., McNamara, 2003; Sholl,...
Early Activation of Object Names in Visual Search
In a visual search experiment, participants had to decide whether or not a target object was present in a four-object search array. One of these objects could be a semantically related competitor (e.g., shirt for the target trousers) or a conceptually...
Human Sensitivity to Reinforcement Feedback Functions
Two experiments investigated human sensitivity to the temporally extended aspects of reinforcement schedules. Experiment 1 investigated human sensitivity to the extended and local aspects of three reinforcement schedules: variable ratio (VR), variable...
Impressions of Force in Visual Perception of Collision Events: A Test of the Causal Asymmetry Hypothesis
When two objects interact they exert equal and opposite forces on each other. According to the causal asymmetry hypothesis, however, when one object has been identified as causal and the other as that in which the effect occurs, the causal object is...
Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity and Divided Attention in Dichotic Listening
The controlled attention theory of working memory suggests that individuals with greater working memory capacity (WMC) are better able to control or focus their attention than individuals with lesser WMC. This relationship has been observed in a number...
Investigating Effects of Selectional Restriction Violations and Plausibility Violation Severity on Eye-Movements in Reading
This paper presents a study investigating whether and how different kinds of knowledge affect the detection of plausibility and possibility violations. Readers' eye-movements were monitored while reading sentences describing impossible events cued by...
Involuntary Capture of Visual-Spatial Attention Occurs for Intersections, Both Real and "Imagined"
In three spatial precuing experiments, we demonstrate attentional capture by an intersection that occurs (1) between two lines that are not part of an enclosed object, and (2) between a line in the cuing array that is not physically present during target...
Models of Covariation-Based Causal Judgment: A Review and Synthesis
Causal judgment is assumed to play a central role in prediction, control, and explanation. Here, we consider the function or functions that map contingency information concerning the relationship between a single cue and a single outcome onto causal...
Moving Eyes and Moving Thought: On the Spatial Compatibility between Eye Movements and Cognition
Grant and Spivey (2003) proposed that eye movement trajectories can influence spatial reasoning by way of an implicit eye-movement-to-cognition link. We tested this proposal and investigated the nature of this link by continuously monitoring eye movements...
Neurophysiological Evidence for Transfer Appropriate Processing of Memory: Processing versus Feature Similarity
Transfer appropriate processing (TAP) accounts propose that memory is a function of the degree to which the same neural processes transfer appropriately from the study experience to the memory test. However, in prior research, study and test stimuli...
On the Failure of Distractor Inhibition in the Attentional Blink
We investigated whether a failure of distractor inhibition contributes to the magnitude of the attentional blink (AB). Subjects viewed dual-target rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) streams, where the distractors that directly preceded and succeeded...
People Believe It Is Plausible to Have Forgotten Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse
Pezdek Blandon-Gitlin, and Gabbay (2006) found that perceptions of the plausibility of events increase the likelihood that imagination may induce false memories of those events. Using a survey conducted by Gallup, we asked a large sample of the general...
Repetition Blindness Is Immune to the Central Bottleneck
The attentional blink (AB) and repetition blindness (RB) phenomena refer to subjects' impaired ability to detect the second of two different (AB) or identical (RB) target stimuli in a rapid serial visual presentation stream if they appear within 500...
Rules-Plus-Exception Tasks: A Problem for Exemplar Models?
Erickson and Kruschke (2002b) have shown that human subjects generalize category knowledge in a rule-like fashion when exposed to a rule-plus-exception categorization task. This result has remained a challenge to exemplar models of category learning....
Semantic Interference and Associative Facilitation from Words Presented in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation
Semantic interference in picture naming is readily obtained when categorically related distractor words are displayed with picture targets; however, this is not typically the case when both primes and targets are words. Researchers have argued that to...
Shape Effects on Memory for Location
The participants were 40 students who were briefly presented 32 dot locations, one at a time, and attempted to reproduce each location after a short delay. Half of the participants completed the task with the surrounding shapes being a circle, a horizontal...
The Divergent Autoencoder (DIVA) Model of Category Learning
A novel theoretical approach to human category learning is proposed in which categories are represented as coordinated statistical models of the properties of the members. Key elements of the account are learning to recode inputs as task-constrained...
The Effect of Causal Knowledge on Judgments of the Likelihood of Unknown Features
People frequently infer unknown aspects of an entity based on their knowledge about that entity. The current study reports a novel phenomenon, an inductive bias people have in making such inferences. Upon learning that one symptom causes another in a...
The Effects of Frontal Lobe Functioning and Age on Veridical and False Recall
Older adults' heightened susceptibility to false memories has been linked to compromised frontal lobe functioning as estimated by Glisky and colleagues' (Glisky, Polster, & Routhieaux, 1995) neuropsychological battery (e.g., Butler, McDaniel, Dornburg,...
The Effects of Memory Set Size and Information Structure on Learning and Retention
Two experiments examined the effects of memory set size and information structure on learning and retention. Participants learned 48 (small set) or 144 (large set) facts about individuals, and were tested over 48 facts. The test facts included either...
The Picture-Word Interference Effect Is Not a Stroop Effect
A psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm was used to isolate the locus of the picture-word interference effect along the chain of processes subtended in name production. Two stimuli were presented sequentially on each trial, separated by a varying...
The Role of Category Coherence in Experience-Based Prediction
Both real-world category knowledge and instance-based sample data are often available as sources of inductive inference. In three experiments using natural social categories, we test the influence of general category knowledge on the use of category...
The Role of Temporal Cue-Target Overlap in Backward Inhibition under Task Switching
One of the proposed mechanisms for sequential control in task-shift conditions is backward inhibition (BI), which is usually measured in terms of lag-2 task repetition costs in A-B-A task sequences relative to C-B-A task sequences. By considering the...
Us and Them: Memory Advantages in Perceptually Ambiguous Groups
Ingroup advantages and outgroup deficits in perception and memory are well-established in research on race, gender, and other ostensibly identifiable social categories. The present study extended this research to a social category that is not as perceptually...
Value Transfer Contributes to Ambiguous-Cue Discrimination Learning
Pigeons learned two concurrent simultaneous discriminations in which the S- for one served as the S+ for the other. When all correct choices were reinforced, accuracy on the former (positive vs. ambiguous-cue or PA) discrimination was lower than on the...
Word Frequency and Predictability Effects in Reading French: An Evaluation of the E-Z Reader Model
French readers' eye movements were monitored as they read a passage of text. Initial global analyses of word frequency, accounting for the majority of fixations in the text, revealed a good fit between the observed data and the simulated data from the...