Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Provides broad range of topics in all areas of experimental psychology. The journal publishes theory and review articles, reports on experimental work, and coverage of methods in all areas.

Articles from Vol. 15, No. 5, October

Clinical Expertise and Reasoning with Uncertain Categories
Expert clinical psychologists, clinical psychology graduates, and nonclinical graduate students were presented with clinical and nonclinical cases in which the diagnosis or category membership of a character was uncertain; they then made feature predictions...
Decision Criteria Do Not Shift: Commentary on Mueller and Weidemann (2008)/Decision Noise May Mask Criterion Shifts: Reply to Balakrishnan and MacDonald (2008)
(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)J. D. BalakrishnanCalifornia Polytechnic State University,San Luis Obispo, CaliforniaandJustin A. MacDonaldNew Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New MexicoThe effects of base rates and payoffs on the shapes...
Differences in the Cognitive Demands of Word Order, Plural, and Subject-Verb Agreement Constructions
The syntactic devices of subject-verb-object word order, regular plurals, and subject-verb agreement differ in age of acquisition and susceptibility to error within language-disordered populations. In the present article, the performance of adults on...
Easy on the Mind, Easy on the Wallet: The Roles of Familiarity and Processing Fluency in Valuation Judgments
Although people routinely estimate the value of items in their environment, from goods and services to natural resources and lost earnings following an accident, the processes that underlie human valuation estimates are not well understood. We show that...
Evaluating Models of Remember-Know Judgments: Complexity, Mimicry, and Discriminability
Remember-know judgments provide additional information in recognition memory tests, but the nature of this information and the attendant decision process are in dispute. Competing models have proposed that remember judgments reflect a sum of familiarity...
Intrinsic Array Structure Is Neither Necessary nor Sufficient for Nonegocentric Coding of Spatial Layouts
Mou and McNamara (2002) have recently theorized that nonegocentric reference frames (viz., intrinsic reference frames, based on the spatial structure of a configuration of objects) are used to organize spatial relationships in memory. The theory has...
Is Attention Needed for Word Identification? Evidence from the Stroop Paradigm
One of the most robust findings in attention research is that the time to name a color is lengthened markedly in the presence of an irrelevant word that spells a different color name: the Stroop effect. The Stroop effect is found even when the word is...
Memory for Objects in Canonical and Noncanonical Viewpoints
This article investigates how the perspective from which we see an object affects memory. Object identification can be affected by the orientation of the object. Palmer, Rosch, and Chase (1981) coined the term canonical to describe perspectives in which...
Moving beyond Coltheart's N: A New Measure of Orthographic Similarity
Visual word recognition studies commonly measure the orthographic similarity of words using Coltheart's orthographic neighborhood size metric (ON). Although ON reliably predicts behavioral variability in many lexical tasks, its utility is inherently...
Object-Based Attention in Chinese Readers of Chinese Words: Beyond Gestalt Principles
Most object-based attention studies use objects defined bottom-up by Gestalt principles. In the present study, we defined objects top-down, using Chinese words that were seen as objects by skilled readers of Chinese. Using a spatial cuing paradigm, we...
Overthinking Skilled Motor Performance: Or Why Those Who Teach Can't Do
Skilled athletes often maintain that overthinking disrupts performance of their motor skills. Here, we examined whether these experiences have a basis in verbal overshadowing, a phenomenon in which describing memories for ineffable perceptual experiences...
Patterns of Experience with Verbs Affect Long-Term Cumulative Structural Priming
Recent studies of structural priming have demonstrated that although there is evidence of verb-based effects in short-term priming (e.g., stronger priming when verbs are repeated between prime and target sentences), such effects are absent in long-term...
Randomness in Retrospect: Exploring the Interactions between Memory and Randomness Cognition
People tend to believe that sequences of random events produce fewer and shorter streaks than is actually the case. Although this error has been demonstrated repeatedly and in many forms, nearly all studies of randomness cognition have focused on how...
Semantic Access in Second-Language Visual Word Processing: Evidence from the Semantic Simon Paradigm
The present study investigated whether visually presented second-language words activate their meaning during low-level word processing, just as native-language words do. Using the semantic Simon paradigm (De Houwer, 1998) with a letter-case judgment...
State-Trace Analysis of the Effects of a Visual Illusion on Saccade Amplitudes and Perceptual Judgments
Visual illusions often appear to have a larger influence on subjective judgments than on visuomotor behavior. Although this effect has been taken as evidence for multiple estimates of stimulus size in the visual brain, dissociations between subjective...
The Representations of Spacing and Part-Based Information Are Associated for Upright Faces but Dissociated for Objects: Evidence from Individual Differences
Considerable evidence suggests that qualitatively different processes are involved in the perception of faces and objects. According to a central hypothesis, the extraction of information about the spacing among face parts (e.g., eyes and mouth) is a...
The Role of Valence and Frequency in the Emotional Stroop Task
People are generally slower to name the color of emotion-laden words than they are to name that of emotionally neutral words. However, an analysis of this emotional Stroop effect (Larsen, Mercer, & Balota, 2006) indicates that the emotion-laden words...
The Word-Length Effect Provides No Evidence for Decay in Short-Term Memory
Many researchers regard the word-length effect (WLE) as one of the strongest pieces of evidence for time-based decay in short-term memory. We argue that the WLE is, in fact, undiagnostic for the decay hypothesis for two reasons. First, the WLE represents...
Toward a Complete Decision Model of Item and Source Recognition
In a recognition memory test, subjects may be asked to decide whether a test item is old or new (item recognition) or to decide among alternative sources from which it might have been drawn for study (source recognition). Confidence-rating-based receiver...
When Confidence in a Choice Is Independent of Which Choice Is Made
For forced-choice two-alternative general-information questions, confidence in the correctness of the answer differed reliably for different questions, regardless of which answer was chosen. Results suggested that this choice-independent confidence is...