Memory & Cognition

A journal that covers human memory and learning, conceptual processes, and problem solving in a scholarly forum.

Articles from Vol. 36, No. 4, June

Allocating Time to Future Tasks: The Effect of Task Segmentation on Planning Fallacy Bias
The scheduling component of the time management process was used as a "paradigm" to investigate the allocation of time to future tasks. In three experiments, we compared task time allocation for a single task with the summed time allocations given for...
Examining Recognition Criterion Rigidity during Testing Using a Biased-Feedback Technique: Evidence for Adaptive Criterion Learning
Recognition models often assume that subjects use specific evidence values (decision criteria) to adaptively parse continuous memory evidence into response categories (e.g., "old," "new"). Although explicit pretest instructions influence criterion placement,...
Executive Attention and Task Switching in Category Learning: Evidence for Stimulus-Dependent Representation
One class of multiple-system models of category learning posits that within a single category-learning task people can learn to utilize different systems with different category representations to classify different stimuli. This is referred to as stimulus-dependent...
Explaining Outcome Type Interactions with Frame: Aspiration Level and the Value Function
Research on framing effects has revealed cases where the type of outcome at risk (e.g., human lives vs. animal lives) affects the magnitude of the framing effect. Some authors have appealed to the shape of the value function as predicting when framing...
Framing Effects on Metacognitive Monitoring and Control
Three experiments explored the contribution of framing effects on metamemory judgments. In Experiment 1, participants studied word pairs. After each presentation, they made an immediate judgment of learning (JOL), framed in terms of either remembering...
Hindsight Bias in Insight and Mathematical Problem Solving: Evidence of Different Reconstruction Mechanisms for Metacognitive versus Situational Judgments
This article presents two experiments that used insight and mathematical problems to investigate whether different factors would affect hindsight bias on metacognitive and situational judgments. In both studies, participants initially rated their likelihood...
Implementation Intentions Facilitate Prospective Memory under High Attention Demands
An implementation intention is a planning technique that involves specifying a situation for initiating an intended action and linking these specific cues to the intention. In two experiments with young adults, we found significant increases in prospective...
On the Immunity of Perceptual Implicit Memory to Manipulations of Attention
In four experiments, we examined the effect of manipulating study phase attention in a Stroop task on the extent of repetition priming in the lexical decision task (LDT). Experiment 1 replicated the immunity of the LDT to division of attention reported...
Repetition Blindness and Repetition Priming: Effects of Featural Differences between Targets and Distractors on RSVP Dual-Target Search
In six experiments, we investigated the influence of featural differences between targets and distractors on the detection and identification of dissimilar and repeated targets in conditions that typically produce an attentional blink and repetition...
Response Mode Differences in Perspective Taking: Differences in Representation or Differences in Retrieval?
Three experiments explored whether response mode differences in perspective taking result from different spatial representations or different retrieval processes. Participants learned object locations and then, while blind-folded, pointed to or verbally...
Rules and More Rules: The Effects of Multiple Tasks, Extensive Training, and Aging on Task-Switching Performance
Task-switching performance was assessed in young and older adults as a function of the number of task sets to be actively maintained in memory (varied from 1 to 4) over the course of extended training (5 days). Each of the four tasks required the execution...
Strategy Development and Learning Differences in Supervised and Unsupervised Categorization
The processes that determine unsupervised categorization, the task of classifying stimuli without guidance or feedback, are poorly understood. Two experiments examined the emergence and plasticity of unsupervised strategies using perceptual stimuli that...
The Activation of Semantic Memory: Effects of Prime Exposure, Prime-Target Relationship, and Task Demands
Priming facilitation was examined under conditions of brief incremental prime exposures (28, 43, 71, and 199 msec) under masked conditions for two types of lexical relationships (associative-semantic pairs, such as "wolf-fox," and semantic-feature pairs,...
The Deployment of Attention in Short-Term Memory Tasks: Trade-Offs between Immediate and Delayed Deployment
Memory at times depends on attention, as when attention is used to encode incoming, serial verbal information. When encoding and rehearsal are difficult or when attention is divided during list presentation, more attention is needed in the time following...
Utilitarian Relevance and Face Management in the Interpretation of Ambiguous Question/request Statements
Often, requests are made in an indirect manner and phrased in such a way that they can also be construed as questions. For example, the sentence "Is there any coffee left?" can be construed either as a question about coffee or as a request for coffee....
Visual Mental Imagery and Visual Perception: Structural Equivalence Revealed by Scanning Processes
The research reported in the present article investigates whether information is represented the same way in both visual mental imagery and the early phases of visual perception. In Experiment 1, the same participants scanned over patterns of dots in...