Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society

Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society is a magazine focusing on Humanities

Articles from Vol. 148, No. 2, June

Academic Freedom and the Research University1
WHEN WE IMAGINE creating the modern research university de novo, the first cornerstone to be laid is that of academic freedom. The American idea of academic freedom originated in Europe; it was faculty trained in European universities who brought with...
Arthur Schawlow
ARTHUR SCHAWLOW, the J. G. Jackson and C. J. Wood Professor of Physics at Stanford University and co-inventor of the laser, contributed to many aspects of nuclear, atomic, and molecular physics. He was awarded the 1981 Nobel Prize for Physics for "contributions...
ERWIN CHARGAFF: Science in a Chaotic Time
IN 1944, as various armies were planning to invade central Europe, the recently naturalized U.S. citizen and Columbia University biochemist had learned of the report of O. T. Avery and his colleagues that the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of a specific...
Gregory Vlastos
PROFESSOR EMERITUS Gregory Vlastos died of cancer on 12 October 1991, at the age of eighty-four. When he died he held a McArthur Fellowship; he was the oldest scholar ever to receive this recognition. Though a scrupulously modest man, he admitted to...
Henry Cavendish: The Catalyst for the Chemical Revolution1
To the Memory of Glenn T. Seaborg (1912-1999)WHATEVER ELSE MAY BE SAID regarding the relative status of Henry Cavendish and Antoine Lavoisier in connection with the great chemical revolution that finally occurred at the end of the eighteenth century,...
Max Perutz
LIKE ONE OF HIS HEROES, Louis Pasteur, Max Perutz began his scientific career as a chemist, but his work and that of his associates was to lay the foundations of molecular biology and to exert a profound influence upon modern medicine. His inspirational...
Paradoxes of Free Will and the Limits of Human Reason1
IMMANUEL KANT, the eighteenth-century German philosopher, and Niels Bohr, the twentieth-century Danish physicist, both noted that driving human reason too far in the analysis of deep problems often leads to irresolvable contradictions.Kant (1934) epitomized...
Richard Krautheimer
RICHARD KRAUTHEIMER was released in 1918 from army service in the trenches of the First World War and enrolled, under pressure from his father, in the law curriculum of the University of Munich. There his roommate, an art history student, persuaded him...
Walter H. Annenberg
WALTER H. ANNENBERG was a publisher, editor, broadcast pioneer, diplomat, art collector, philanthropist, and proud citizen of the United States."My country has been good to me," he once said. "I must be good to my country. I made my money from Protestants,...
What Is the History of Medieval Optics Really About?1
SINCE ITS PUBLICATION IN 1975, David Lindberg's Theories of Vision from Al-Kindi to Kepler2 has become the canonical source for our understanding of medieval optics and its place in the development of modern optics. Lindberg's ulterior purpose in writing...