Planning and Changing

Planning and Changing is a magazine focusing on Education

Articles

Vol. 40, No. 1/2, Spring/Summer

School Board Ethics and Effectiveness
IntroductionSince the early 1980s, educational policy has increasingly been focused on improving student performance (Conley, 2003, Murphy, 1990). School governance in general, and school boards in particular, have often been viewed as either the means...
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Effective Charter Schools and Charter School Systems
The purpose of this synthesis of the literature on charter school effectiveness is to develop a research agenda on the topic and to propose action that will lead to improved performance of charter schools.1 To accomplish these goals, background information...
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Struggling Readers in Urban High Schools: Evaluating the Impact of Professional Development in Literacy
The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a district-wide professional development effort based on a modified RampUp Program, designed to help high school teachers improve the reading skills of their students. Ramp-Up is a two-year...
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The Co-Principalship: An Alternative to the Traditional Principalship
IntroductionThe National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) surveys high school principals every ten years to gather a snapshot of the "typical" high school principal. The report from a recent survey characterized the principalship as...
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Educational Planning: Implications of the 2008 Revised Interstate School Leadership Licensure Consortium Standards for School Leaders
On November 2, 1996, the Interstate School Leadership Licensure Consortium (ISLLC), a program of the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO), adopted a set of Standards for School Leaders (CCSSO, 1996). By 2005, 41 states had adopted or adapted...
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Illinois Post-Secondary Transfer Students: Experiences in Navigating the Higher Education Transfer System
IntroductionA significant number of students transfer from one college to another each year, and historically this has created challenges for students striving to attain their higher education goals. The purpose of this study was to inform state articulation...
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Vol. 38, No. 3/4, Fall

The Instructional Capacity Building Role of the State Education Agency: Lessons Learned in Kentucky with Implications for No Child Left Behind
Across the United States the state education agency (SEA) is a "sleeping giant" with untapped potential to build instructional capacity in our nation's 110,000 public schools. Perched at the top of the education infrastructure as the operational arm...
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Harnessing Technology for School Accountability: A Case Study of Implementing a Management Information System
Schools employ educational technology to comply with pressures for greater accountability and efficiency in conducting operations. Specifically, schools use management information systems designed to automate data collection of student attendance, grades,...
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The Impact of Computer Assisted Instruction on Seventh-Grade Students' Mathematics Achievement
IntroductionThe perceived problem of low mathematics achievement is a concern to education leaders at all levels of PK-16 education. Reflecting this problem, the Third International Mathematics and Science Study-Repeat (TIMSS-R) showed the weaknesses...
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A Preparation Mystery: Why Some Succeed and Others Fail
If leadership education programs are improving, then why do some of our graduates fail in leading schools and districts even as others succeed? The relationship between what is taught in graduate leadership education programs and the daily practices...
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Designing a School Website: Contents, Structure, and Responsiveness
IntroductionOver the past few years, as part of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) reform on the one hand, and the increased demands for school accountability on the other, more and more schools have launched a school website aimed at...
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The Principal's Role in Marketing the School: Subjective Interpretations and Personal Influences
IntroductionThe introduction of school choice programs into the educational systems of many Western countries throughout the 1980s and 1990s (Cookson, 1994; Levin, 2001; Lubienski, 2005; Nir, 2003; Oplatka, 2002) has led to more competitive environments...
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When School Advisory Councils Decide: Spending Choices for School Improvement
Many state-level school reform efforts have focused on creating governance structures that provide stakeholders with greater access to and influence over decisions about schooling. Parent and community involvement in decision making is widely held as...
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Vol. 38, No. 1/2, Spring

Legislating Excellence? One State's Response to Mandated Professional Development of Teachers
BackgroundAccording to Bolman and Deal (2003), policymakers often step in to make changes when management fails, and these efforts rarely have the desired effect within organizations. This phenomenon has been experienced in Illinois in recent years regarding...
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Roles and Responsibilities of Clinical Faculty in Selected Educational Leadership Programs
Educational leadership programs often are criticized for being disconnected from administrative practice, with concerns expressed regarding the paucity of professors with administrative experience (Bredeson, 1996; Levine, 2005). Although practitioners...
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Superintendent Recruitment: A Statewide Assessment of Principal Attraction to the Job
IntroductionOne of the most important administrative challenges educational leaders-such as school board members and state department of education policymakers-face is the task of recruiting qualified personnel to fill superintendent vacancies in the...
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Contextual Factors Related to Elementary Principal Turnover
Purpose of the StudyThe issue of school leadership instability and how it affects schools and student achievement has been studied. The question of how to predict turnover of the principal remains an unknown. The purpose of this research was to search...
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Looking for Leaders: Current Practices in Leadership Identification in Higher Education
IntroductionTo be successful in today's changing environment, higher education institutions need competent, effective academic leaders. The rise of college costs, a perceived lack of accountability of higher education to taxpayers and state governments,...
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Improving Reading in High Schools: Outcomes of Ramp Up to Advanced Literacy in a Large Urban District
As emphasized in the recent No Child Left Behind (NCLB, 2001) legislation and the Education Sciences Reform Act (ESRA, 2002), it is critically important to identify "what works" in bringing all students to proficiency levels in core subjects like reading....
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Attracting Beginning Teachers: The Incentives and Organizational Characteristics That Matter
Concern about teacher shortages has been widespread in the last decade. Numerous reports have focused attention on the issue in the United States where the shortage is particularly acute in specific teaching specialties and in urban and rural schools...
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Vol. 37, No. 3/4, 2006

Instructional Language Policy in Ethiopia: Motivated by Politics or the Educational Needs of Children?
IntroductionFollowing the change of government in 1991, Ethiopia's education system has been undergoing fondamental change. No part of the education system has been left untouched. A centralized administration was replaced by a decentralized one in line...
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Learning from Experience: Initial Findings of a Mentoring/induction Program for Novice Principals and Superintendents
For many professions, the use of mentoring relationships to facilitate and sustain professional development is an age-old tradition. Mentoring programs are studied widely and are reported to be effective in enhancing career development in private industry...
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Texas Superintendents' Ratings of Standards/assessment/accountability Programs
Accountability and assessment are critical components to the success of schools today. As leaders of school districts, superintendents in Texas and across the nation are faced daily with meeting this challenge. While doing so, they must remember that...
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School Principal's Leadership Style and Teachers' Self-Efficacy
IntroductionIn 1995, Kristine Hipp and Paul Bredeson published a study that looked at the relation between schoolteachers' self-efficacy (SE) and school principal's leadership style. The basic assumption of this publication and of two others that followed...
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Understanding Education Reform: Insights from Stories of the Changing School Context
IntroductionBy the turn of the twenty-first century, education reforms had become both a global and local phenomenon. Speaking to their global scale, Levin (2004) observed that schools have to "modify their operations in response to globalization, information...
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Teacher Tenure: Illinois School Board Presidents' Perspectives and Suggestions for Improvement
IntroductionFor nearly five decades, improving the quality of public education has been a focus of local, state, and federal educational priorities. As evidence of flat or declining student achievement mounted and national reports such as A Nation at...
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Benchmarking Teacher Education: A Comparative Assessment of the Top Ten Teacher-Producing Universities' Contributions to the Teacher Workforce
IntroductionPressure to reform the nation's schools that began with the publication of A Nation at Risk (National Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983) has yielded 23 years of evidence of ways to improve schools (Marzano, 2003). One factor that...
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Vol. 37, No. 1/2, 2006

Introduction
Reforms in Curriculum, Teaching, and Learning in Southeast AsiaIn the last 20 years the context of education as a profession has changed dramatically from the national to the global stage. Education has always been of concern to national leaders intent...
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Scaling-Up Educational Reform in Thailand: Context, Collaboration, Networks, and Change
Southeast Asia has witnessed a decade of transformational change such that children entering primary school today "cannot even imagine the world in which their grandparents lived and into which their own parents were born" (Drucker, 1995, p. 75). Yet,...
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Can Collaboration and Self Direction Be Learned? a Procedural Framework for Problem-Based Learning
IntroductionAround the world, governments, authorities, and educators are grappling with primordial questions about the purposes of institutionalized education: What are the aims and consequences of education for individuals, communities, and societies?...
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Implementing a Pedagogy of Integration: Some Thoughts Based on a Textbook Elaboration Experience in Vietnam
IntroductionA major trend in current pedagogic thinking, and in its corresponding implementing practices, is based on the fundamental concepts of integration and competence. This evolution is the logical outcome-as demonstrated by a member of our team...
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Will the Chinese Learning Initiative Evoke the Long-Awaited Fifth Modernization?
Whenever scholars write about reforms in curriculum or teaching they often shine the spotlight on schools and schoolteachers. Education in formal settings is an important vehicle for responding to globalization. But in a vast and differentiated nation...
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An Empirical Analysis of Primary Teacher Standards in Vietnam
IntroductionThis article presents an account of the development of competency standards and profiles for primary teachers in Vietnam. The development project has taken more than four years and used a combination of consultative, actuarial, and item response...
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Fostering School-Based Curriculum Development in the Context of New Educational Initiatives in Singapore
IntroductionThe curriculum landscape in Singapore has been undergoing significant changes recently. While there exist a national curriculum and a central curriculum agency, the Curriculum Planning and Development Division (CPDD) within the Ministry of...
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Reforming the Curriculum in a Post-Colonial Society: The Case of Hong Kong1
IntroductionThe current curriculum reform agenda in Hong Kong (Curriculum Development Council, 2001) is enmeshed in the politics of a postcolonial society. Yet, there is not a single view of what post-coloniality means for Hong Kong's school curriculum....
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China's Recent Curriculum Reform: Progress and Problems
In China, the most recent curriculum reform of basic education1 began with the National Congress of Education held by the Chinese central government in 1999. Since the decision to implement well-rounded quality education nation-wide, which was made by...
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Vol. 36, No. 3/4, Fall

Nebraska Stars: Assessment for Learning
Nebraska's School-based, Teacher-led Assessment and Reporting System (STARS) is identified by the Partnership for the 21st Century Skills (2005) as "...the nation's most innovative assessment system" (p. 13). STARS is being watched closely by national...
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An Application of Total Quality Principles in Transforming the Culture of Classrooms
Since the conclusion of World War II, there have been continuing efforts to understand, define, and apply organizational principles associated with the production of high quality work (Deming, 1986; Jazzar & Algozzine, 2005; Juran, 1988, 1989; Scherkenbach,...
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The Unsafe School Choice Option: A Snapshot
IntroductionPublic schools have been plagued with one reform initiative or another for close to fifty years. They have had to deal with "education presidents or governors" who use public schools as a political football and with state legislatures who...
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Dispelling the Myths and Confirming the Truths of the Imminent Shortage of Principals: The Case of New York State
Introduction and BackgroundRecently, there have been numerous accounts of the increasingly large number of available school leadership positions, many of them principalships (e.g., Jordan, 1994; Moore, 1999; Adams, 1999; ERS, 2000; O'Connell, 2001)....
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The Eye of the Beholder: Superintendent Perceptions of State Systemic Reform
IntroductionSince their inception, one of the major conceptual bases for standards-based reforms has been the notion of alignment. In a local sense, alignment means that in order to improve student achievement and learning, school districts need to have...
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The Effect of Teachers' Staff Development in the Use of Higher-Order Questioning Strategies on Third Grade Students' Rubric Science Assessment Performance
IntroductionResearch suggests that aspects of teaching effectiveness make the difference in how students perform. Successful teachers tend to be those who employ a range of teaching strategies and interactive styles to meet the needs of their learners....
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Emotions and Educational Leadership: Narratives from the Inside
The future, whether we look from the perspective of school to work, school to learn, or from the tensions inherent in an ever-changing society, demands a rich complement of tools, skills, and strategies to support a high level of emotional literacy....
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Vol. 36, No. 1/2, 2005

Retire-Rehire Policy in State Pension Programs for School Administrators
IntroductionPolicy changes in state pension programs for public school educators typically affect not only current and future retirees, but also social conditions (Deaton, 1989), labor market forces (Clark, Craig, & Wilson, 2003), and professional...
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Idea Writing: Generating Solutions for Effective Change
IntroductionThe purpose of this case study is to consider a group strategy, Idea Writing, that will allow organizational leaders to gather qualitative results to both small and large questions which can help their organization to move forward. Idea Writing...
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Student Assessment: What Do Superintendents Need to Know?
The days when a public school superintendent could be successful by being a good organizational manager are over. Throughout the 1990s and into the first decade of the twenty-first century a transformation of the superintendency has occurred where school...
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Recruiting Teachers into a Career as School Counselor in a School Reform Environment
IntroductionOne of the most critical responsibilities accorded to educational leaders and administrators is the task of planning the staffing of schools and school districts with the qualified professionals required to deliver high quality educational...
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Achieving Professional Community in Schools: The Administrator Challenge
IntroductionTeachers, administrators and policy makers at all levels of public education remain challenged to devise more effective ways to optimize teacher performance and, thereby, student achievement. Numerous professional organizations and teacher...
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Teacher Evaluation: Principals' Insights and Suggestions for Improvement
IntroductionIn the twenty-first century, school improvement is the focal point for educational leadership. Improvement must take the form of higher student achievement test scores, an engaging classroom that meets the needs of all learners, and a more...
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Are Charter Schools Effective?
Background for the StudyWithin the context of continual dissatisfaction with American public schools, charter school proponents view charter schools as a viable reform mechanism. At the heart of their reform potential is a degree of exemption from state...
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Reconceptualizing School Leader Learning: Blurring the Lines between Staff Development and University-Based Principal Preparation Programs
Currently, considerable difference exists between learning experiences for school administrators at the pre-service and in-service stages in their careers. Individuals aspiring to formal school leadership roles participate in learning experiences that...
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Vol. 35, No. 3/4, Fall

What's in a Name: Issues of Race, Gender, Culture, and Power in the Naming of Public School Buildings in Kansas City, Missouri, 1940-1995
In virtually all societies, naming is an act steeped in cultural meanings and value considerations. Naming of children is arguably one of the more significant cultural events in a person's life (e.g., Alford, 1988; Van Poppel & Smith, 1999). The...
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Learning from Success: A Leverage for Transforming Schools into Learning Communities
Every time I visit one of the schools under my supervision, I ask the principal and his or her staff to write down all the problems at school, so I can help them solve these problems. I never thought to ask for their successes as a mode for learning....
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The Luckiest Little High School: The Possibilities and Pangs of Community Democracy
IntroductionThe rapid transformation of a secondary school from a bureaucratically regimented institution to a student-centered learning environment advocating democratic practices merits review. During its third year of progressive reform, this gem...
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Teachers Planning and Implementing Ict-Based Practices
IntroductionPlanning is a human behavior aimed at reducing uncertainty. Planning involves future thinking, decision making, integration, and formalized procedure (Mintzberg, 1994). Introducing Information Communication Technology (ICT) into schools heightens...
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School District-University Partnerships: Graduate Student Perceptions of the Strengths and Weaknesses of a Reformed Leadership Development Program
IntroductionAlmost two decades have passed since the onset of major criticisms of educational leadership programs across the United States. Various organizations such as the National Policy Board for Educational Administration (1989), the National Commission...
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Improving Florida's Test-Based Accountability System: Suggestions from Elementary School Administrators
No policy has created more discussion among educators in recent history than the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. NCLB was ostensibly designed to change the culture of schools and improve student achievement, especially the achievement of America's...
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Does Gender Make a Difference? Voices of Male and Female High School Principals
IntroductionThe aim of this study is to increase our understanding of the high school principalship by examining the similarities and differences between how males and females experience the role. This information continues the process of developing...
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Student Learning Portfolios: How They Are Being Implemented in Educational Administration Preparation Programs
Student learning portfolios have become increasingly popular in educational administration preparation programs. In the 2004 national study being reported here, more than 90% of the sample population indicated that student portfolios were being used...
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Vol. 35, No. 1/2, Spring

Recruiting Certified Personnel to Be Principals: A Statewide Assessment of Potential Job Applicants
An essential administrative responsibility accorded to state- and district-level education leaders is the task of planning for staffing needs, including the recruitment of competent leaders to fill principal vacancies (Castetter & Young, 2000; Rebore,...
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Identifying the Knowledge Base for School Improvement
In 1983, a landmark event occurred in public education in the United States: the National Commission on Excellence in Education published its now famous report, A Nation at Risk. Although this report was not the first denunciation of the efficacy of...
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Politics and Paradox! the Case of an Urban Alternative School1
IntroductionThe alternative program described in this article would not have existed without a zero-tolerance district policy applied by school administrators to students caught possessing a weapon on school property. Nor would this alternative to expulsion...
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The Arrival of a New Woman Principal and Teachers' Self-Renewal: Reflections from Life Stories of Mid-Career Teachers1
The first years of a principalship are marked by unique tasks and experiences. Studies conducted with beginning principals (BPs) indicate that they experience shock of transition to their new position, intensity of the job, high levels of personal insecurity,...
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Superintendent Perceptions of Motivators and Inhibitors for the Superintendency
While there is much written today about the superintendent shortage (Cooper, 2000; Glass, Björk, & Brunner, 2000; Lowery & Harris, 2003; Hoyle, 2002; Rawls & Wolverton, 2000; Rohn, 2001), there is not complete agreement that a superintendent...
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Moving District Reform into Schools: Links between Teachers' Perceptions of District-Wide Reform Efforts, Participation in Professional Activities, and Student Achievement
A nationwide call for accountability in education sprang from the publication of A Nation at Risk (National Commission on Excellence, 1983). The resulting move to high-stakes, statewide tests has sent educators scrambling for a recipe for reform that...
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