Journal of the Community Development Society

Journal covering community development issues.

Articles

Vol. 36, No. 1, January

Introduction: Community Informatics and Community Development
Community informatics, a comparatively new discipline, is the study of information and communication technology (ICT) in community development work. Michael Gurstein (2000,p. 1) defines community informatics as "a technology strategy or discipline...
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Vol. 35, No. 1, October

Editor's Comments
This special issue on Entrepreneurship in Community Development is edited by Norman Walzer, a long time friend of community development and the Journal of the Community Development Society. We thank Norm for soliciting the articles, overseeing their...
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Introduction: Entrepreneurship in Community Development
Community development has become a complex endeavor as local public officials and public officials strive to respond to changes in economic activity and the needs of an increasingly diverse population. While the specific issues differ, successful community...
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Building Entrepreneurial Communities: The Appropriate Role of Enterprise Development Activities
ABSTRACT This article examines the concept of building entrepreneurial communities as a strategy for community economic development. It begins by attempting to define what is meant by the term "entrepreneurial community" and to clarify how economic...
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Local Entrepreneurship: A Development Model Based on Community Interaction Field Theory
ABSTRACT Local entrepreneurship shows great potential as an economic development strategy for rural communities with stagnating or declining economies. However, nascent entrepreneurs often lack knowledge of ways to actualize their ideas, and communities...
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Bonding Social Capital in Entrepreneurial Developing Communities-Survival Networks or Barriers?
ABSTRACT This paper focuses on the interaction between social capital and entrepreneurship in Aboriginal communities in Canada. Using statistical and interview data from three First Nations communities in northern Ontario, I examine if and how bonding...
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Community Innovation through Entrepreneurship: Grantmaking in Canadian Community Economic Development
ABSTRACT This paper examines the relationships among community innovation, entrepreneurship, knowledge, and grantmaking in the field of community economic development. The paper assesses the experience of the Community Economic Development Technical...
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From Theory to Action: Energizing Entrepreneurship (E2), Strategies to Aid Distressed Communities Grow Their Own
ABSTRACT The Heartland Center for Leadership Development and the Center for Rural Entrepreneurship propose a new approach to helping distressed communities build on their assets to grow their own jobs and businesses. Using lessons gleaned from case...
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Micro Businesses as an Economic Development Tool: What They Bring and What They Need
ABSTRACT Micro businesses, defined as having ten employees or less, represent a substantial sub-segment of all small businesses. As such, they are credited as a significant contributor to economic growth of a community. This research focused on...
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Promoting the 'Civic' in Entrepreneurship: The Case of Rural Slovakia
ABSTRACT The literature on entrepreneurship emphasizes the importance of the characteristics of individual entrepreneurs, their social networks, and the broader economic, cultural and political institutional landscape. In Slovakia and many of the...
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Familial Networks and Regional Entrepreneurs in Northeast Mississippi's Upholstered Furniture Industry
ABSTRACT Using a sample of 75 owners, we examine the role of familial networks in the establishment and proliferation of the upholstered furniture industry in Northeast Mississippi. Our data show that strong familial and associational ties are linked...
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Vol. 34, No. 2, July

Theorizing Community Development
ABSTRACT This paper attempts a parsimonious definition of community development. It proposes that the purpose of community development is the pursuit of solidarity and agency by adhering to the principles of self-help, felt needs and participation....
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Investing in Communities: Social Capital's Role in Keeping Youth in School
ABSTRACT Many community leaders view economic development as the primary strategy for improving social well-being. One approach to economic development is enhancing the local labor force's human capital through formal education. In this article,...
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Concerns of Newcomer and Longtime Residents in Nonmetropolitan Id Aho Communities: Does the "Gangplank" Theory Apply to Older Populations?
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to examine the level of concern indicated by older people regarding issues of growth and change, based on whether they were newcomers to their community or longtime residents. Participants consisted of 443...
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Resident Attitudes toward a Proposed Limestone Quarry
ABSTRACT A limestone quarry proposal in a small Pennsylvania community triggered disagreements among residents. Some actively opposed the quarry while a small group supported it. The majority of residents did not become involved in the issue. This...
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Citizen Participation in Nonprofit Economic Development Organizations
ABSTRACT Citizen participation in community development, including economic development, is vital for a viable democratic society to flourish. As more U.S. cities shift some or all of their economic development efforts from the city government to...
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Vol. 34, No. 1, January

Editor's Comments
This issue of the Journal of the Community Development Society includes four articles that go to the heart of the theoretical foundation of community development--civic involvement. This term is a broad umbrella for concepts about the way individuals...
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Civic Involvement, Organizational Ties, and Local Economic Development
ABSTRACT Research on local economic development has taken a significant turn in recent years. Much of the previous work has focused on market factors that influence the adoption of economic development policies or the effects of policy adoption...
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Promises and Dilemmas of Participation: Action Research, Search Conference Methodology, and Community Development
ABSTRACT Participatory approaches currently occupy a prominent position in community development practice. However, despite the claims made for the benefits of participation for community members and practitioners alike, critical reflections on...
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Networks and Fields: Corporate Business Leader Involvement in Voluntary Organizations of a Large Nonmetropolitan City
ABSTRACT This paper examines the network structure of overlapping leadership between the corporate business sector and voluntary sector of a growing, non-metropolitan city in the Midwest. The data are from a study initially conducted in the early...
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So Happy Together or Better off Alone? Women's Economic Activities, Cooperative Work, and Empowerment in Rural Paraguay
ABSTRACT Development organizations are emphasizing the use of women's groups to improve socioeconomic welfare and empower women at the household and community levels. This study looks at income-generating activities (IGAs) of women in a small rural...
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Using Theory to Frame Community and Practice
ABSTRACT University-community partnerships stimulate reflection on the body of knowledge that informs professional practice in community settings, and they provide places to challenge assumptions about both theory and practice. This article calls...
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The Economic and Fiscal Impacts of the Elderly on a Small Rural Region
ABSTRACT Recruiting retirees is a popular economic development strategy for rural communities. Previous research finds positive economic and fiscal impacts in communities, but it tends to assume that the elderly are homogeneous and to concentrate...
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Rebuilding after Natural Disaster: A Targeted Economic Development Approach
ABSTRACT Many rural communities, such as Stroud, Oklahoma, in Lincoln County, are struggling for survival. Leaders in Lincoln County asked economists at the Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service at Oklahoma State University to assist them with...
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Vol. 33, No. 2, July

Special Theme: Research on Community Development Practice
This issue includes a set of papers that share the theme of research on community development practice. It is fitting that this second issue of the Journal of the Community Development Society under my editorship has this focus, following the first...
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Community-Based Social Marketing: Involvement in Health Programs
ABSTRACT Social marketing is a strategy that uses marketing approaches developed within the business arena to design, implement, and evaluate socially beneficial programs. This approach can be an effective social change strategy for groups working...
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Building Capacity for Community Efficacy for Economic Development in Mississippi
ABSTRACT In the present political environment, there is an interest in developing policies aimed at building capacity for community efficacy: the ability of a local population to come together and act collectively in pursuit of a generalized...
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Ecosystem Restoration as Community Economic Development? an Assessment of the Possibilities
ABSTRACT The decline of the primary economy over the past two decades has had devastating socioeconomic effects on rural communities and people across the American West. However, it has also opened up an opportunity to restore ecosystem health...
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Sponsorship of Community Leadership Development Programs: What Constitutes an Ideal Partnership?
ABSTRACT Leadership development programs help communities to address today's complex challenges. Such programs frequently emphasize the importance of collaborating with others to effect long-term, positive change. The costs and demands of operating...
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Community Development and Environmental Quality: Benefits and Challenges Using a Service Learning Model for University Engagement
ABSTRACT Urban neighborhood-based organizations have long played an important role in mobilizing resources and resident participation to revitalize communities. Today, these organizations seek information about environmental hazards and assets...
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Uinta County: A Case Study in Wyoming Land Use Planning
ABSTRACT Many Rocky Mountain States are experiencing unprecedented conversion of agricultural land to residential use. An early 1980s oil boom in Uinta County. Wyoming, set a precedent for rapid, unmanaged growth. Recent population growth and...
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Collaboration, New Generation Cooperatives and Local Development
ABSTRACT Local public officials and development practitioners are struggling to find ways to revitalize their communities. This article examines an expanded role for agricultural businesses in the development process. Three main issues are addressed....
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Vol. 33, No. 1, January

Editor's Comments
This Special Issue on Community Development Theory is a major accomplishment for the Journal of the Community Development Society, as well as for the field of community development. Ron Hustedde as the first Special Issue Editor has done a fantastic...
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Editorial
This is the first time that the Journal of the Community Development Society has published a special issue on the theoretical core of community development practice. The theories are stories about how communities behave, interact, organize and reflect...
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The Basics: What's Essential about Theory for Community Development Practice?
ABSTRACT The major point of this article is that the multidisciplinary field of community development needs some common theoretical concepts for community development practice. The authors examine three major limitations of theory for community...
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Community Development Practice: Theory in Action
ABSTRACT What are the guides to community development practice? Thirty-three practitioners from five different countries participated in a grounded-theory qualitative study to investigate what guides their practice. From the interviews, observations,...
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Community Psychology Perspectives on Social Capital Theory and Community Development Practice
ABSTRACT Concepts and research from community psychology can inform community development practice by reframing social capital theory. Social capital (SC) is generally defined and measured at the interpersonal, community, institutional, or societal...
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Towards a Theory of State-Community Partnerships: Interpreting the Irish Muintir Na Tire Movement's Experience
ABSTRACT This paper begins by outlining two very different models or ideal-types of partnership relations between community movements and the state. What we call the optimistic model of partnerships suggests that community interests are central...
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Theory and Practice of Community Development: A Case Study from the United Kingdom
ABSTRACT This paper considers the current concept of community and provides a brief overview of the historical context of British community work with reference to "top-down" and "bottom-up" approaches. The top-down approach has roots in Victorian...
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"Whole Community Organizing" for the 21st Century
ABSTRACT Two elements constitute the core meaning of community--face-to-face social interactions and social relationships. The global era of the 21st century presents new challenges to the practice of community change that empowers a community....
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Three Faces of Empowerment: Expanding the Theory of Empowerment in Community Development
ABSTRACT Empowerment as a process in leadership education is seen as fundamental to community development. Often, empowerment is considered only from the individual, psychological perspective in community development interventions. That is, practitioners...
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Towards the Measurement of Empowerment: The Evaluation of Community Development
ABSTRACT Community development is enjoying something of a revival worldwide. At the same time, however, governments are increasingly concerned to evaluate the effectiveness of community development programs. While the literature has grown concerning...
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Capacity for Community Development: An Approach to Conceptualization and Measurement
Scott McLean, Lori Ebbesen, Kathryn Green, Bruce Reeder, David Butler-Jones, and Sheilagh Steer Capacity for Community Development: An Approach to Conceptualization and Measurement. Omitted references, vol. 32, no. 2. Hawe, P., M. Noort, L....
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Vol. 32, No. 2, July

Looking Back and Looking Forward: Directions of Change for the Journal
Looking Back Over the past five years as editor of the Journal of the Community Development Society I have had a unique opportunity to observe directions taken in various research topics and academic disciplines. This observation has been based...
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New Editor's Comments
The next issue of the Journal of the Community Development Society will be my first since being appointed Editor by the Board of the Community Development Society. This summer you will receive Volume 33, No 1, which will be a special issue on "Community...
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Reevaluating Community Power Structures in Modern Communities
ABSTRACT Classic studies of community power, carried out using different methods in different communities, sparked debate between "elitists" and "pluralists." This debate has not been resolved despite the fact that recent studies point to new conceptualizations...
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A Validity Assessment of Aggregation Methods for Multiple Key Informant Survey Data
ABSTRACT Comparative community researchers are often faced with the task of collecting detailed information about actions and events across a large number of communities. Key informants can play a crucial role in providing such data. For a variety...
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The Drop-Off/pick-Up Method for Household Survey Research
ABSTRACT The hand delivery of self-administered questionnaires has been presented as an alternative for reducing non-coverage error associated with the mail method at lower cost than face-to-face interviews. This research note draws from experiences...
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An Innovative Approach to Cost of Community Service Studies in Wisconsin
ABSTRACT Cost of Community Services (COCS) studies attempt to explain whether or not different types of land uses generate more (or less) revenue than they consume in public services. The technique, developed by the American Farmland Trust (AFT),...
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Social Diversity within Nonprofit Boards: Members' Views on Status and Issues
ABSTRACT This study explores the views of nonprofit agency board members about current status and issues related to board diversity. Trends in agency growth and complexity and turbulence in agency environments are described. Board members view their...
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Community Quality of Life in Low-Income Neighborhoods: Findings from Two Contrasting Communities in Toronto, Canada
ABSTRACT An inquiry into community quality of life was carried out in a framework that recognizes the role that community structures play in individual health and well-being. Through use of focus groups and key informant interviews, community members,...
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Perceptions of Recreation Greenway Impacts among Rural Community Residents
ABSTRACT Data were collected in the fall of 1997 from people living near the Kokosing Gap Trail in Northeast Central Ohio to assess perceived socioeconomic impacts of the recreation facility on local community groups. Survey methodology was used...
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A Rural Community Developer's Guide to Jail Alternatives and Costs
ABSTRACT Periodically, rural leaders and citizens face once-in-a-lifetime community decisions regarding whether to build a new jail or to pass a jail bond. The study described here identified frameworks, methods, and relative costs for a sample...
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Vol. 32, No. 1, January

Editor's Comments
With the publication of Volume 32 (Nos. 1 & 2), I will complete my term as editor. Dr. Ted Bradshaw, University of California-Davis, has been appointed editor and will assume responsibility for the Journal beginning with Volume 33. To facilitate...
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Community Wealth Stratification and the Organizational Provisioning Dilemma: The Case of Amazonian Fishing Communities
ABSTRACT Previous theoretical analysis suggested that group heterogeneity facilitates collective action because agents with high stakes in a public good are also endowed with large amounts of wealth and thus will have greater incentives to contribute...
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What Does "Smart Growth" Mean for Community Development?
ABSTRACT Sprawling patterns of dispersed residential and commercial development are seen as wasteful of land, expensive to service, automobile-dependent, environmentally harmful, and, ultimately, community-defeating. The state of Maryland has enacted...
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Utah Agricultural Operators' Attitudes toward Commonly Used Agricultural Land Preservation Initiatives
ABSTRACT Like many areas in the Intermountain West, Utah experienced rapid population growth in the 1990s, resulting in the conversion of agricultural lands to various types of urban uses. The work described here is an examination of Utah agricultural...
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A Fifty-Year Overview of Persistence and Change in an Old Order Amish Community
ABSTRACT The Old Order Amish of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania were studied by Walter Kollmorgen as part of the Rural Life Study series conducted in 1940 by the Bureau of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Kollmorgen's 1942 study provides...
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Tourism and Forest Products: Twin Resource Sectors for Effective Community Development in the Lake States
ABSTRACT The central purpose of this paper is to help communities and their leaders think realistically about prospects for becoming combined-development centers. Its specifics are based on experience and three community-based case studies in the...
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Fiscal Impact Analysis: Does Method Matter?
ABSTRACT Fiscal impact analysis, which is intended to estimate the impact of a development or land use change on the costs and revenues of governmental units serving the development, is used in a variety of planning contexts. The technique is commonly...
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Socioeconomic Impacts of Agricultural Processing Plants
ABSTRACT Expanded processing of agricultural products in rural areas has been widely pursued as a strategy for rural economic development. However, while offering substantial potential benefits to communities where plants may be located, the expansion...
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The Evolution of Knowledge Networks: An Example for Rural Development
ABSTRACT Knowledge management practices have had a huge impact on the private sector, and no doubt the principles grounded in knowledge management will benefit communities as they build social and organizational networks to further their community...
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Vol. 31, No. 2, July

Editor's Notes
This issue includes a series of articles which resulted from a call for papers on the theory and practice of community development with diverse populations. This initiative, which was funded by the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, resulted in an interesting...
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Ethnic Preferences for Organizational Involvements in Canada
ABSTRACT This examination focuses on patterns of involvement with religious, sport-related, community, cultural, and political organizations by individuals of different ethnic groups, aged 15 years and older in Canada. The sample used for the analysis...
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Growth Machine Attitudes and Community Development in Two Racially Diverse Rural Mississippi Delta Communities: A Monolithic Approach in a Complex Region
ABSTRACT Residents and identified community leaders from two rural Mississippi Delta communities were studied to determine the extent to which diverse groups of this region advocate the same needs of, perceived attitudes toward, and approaches within...
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Community Development by American Indian Tribes: Five Case Studies of Establishing Policy for Tribal Members with Disabilities
ABSTRACT The Americans with Disabilities Act(ADA) has the potential to improve the lives of all Americans with disabilities. Yet, American Indians with disabilities living on tribal lands are specifically excluded from its requirements. In this...
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Community Development in Rural Texas: A Case Study of Balmorhea Public Schools
ABSTRACT Hispanic Americans account for an increasing share of the population in rural areas and are considered the fastest growing rural minority group. Communities with proportionately higher concentrations of Hispanics tend to have greater poverty,...
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Empowering Citizens in an Impoverished Multiethnic Community
ABSTRACT This paper describes an initiative to organize African-American and Hispanic residents around common goals in an impoverished community that was experiencing racial tension. The first stage of work was an ethnography that provided an understanding...
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Implications of Welfare Reform for Community Development: A Case Study Comparing Tribal and County Food Assistance Programs Serving the Northern Cheyenne Nation
ABSTRACT Several questions are addressed in this article. How have welfare changes related to food assistance affected a specific reservation community, the Northern Cheyenne Nation, and what are the implications of these changes for community development?...
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Meat, Meth, and Mexicans: Community Responses to Increasing Ethnic Diversity
ABSTRACT In many rural Midwest communities traditional economic development has created a more ethnically diverse population than community leaders anticipated. Community builders can use the stories created by different segments of the dominant...
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The Influence of the Availability Heuristic on Neighborhood-Association Decision Processes
ABSTRACT This article considers research conducted in diverse-population neighborhoods as part of an ongoing series of projects to facilitate neighborhood association involvement in community planning and neighborhood redevelopment. We discuss three...
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The Practice of Building Social Networks in Divided Communities: A Case Study of a Northern Ireland Border Region
ABSTRACT Based on an interactional community model that suggests the importance of social networks, this case study examines ongoing community development projects in a border region between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. Using interviews...
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A Model for Long-Term Leadership Development among Groups of Diverse Persons: The Delta Emerging Leaders Program
ABSTRACT In today's increasingly global world, rural and urban communities can no longer rely upon the policies and practices of the past. Citizens must overcome major challenges as businesses and communities retool and restructure under the fierce...
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Applying Empowerment Evaluation as a Tool for Self-Improvement and Community Development with Culturally Diverse Populations
ABSTRACT Empowerment evaluation emphasizes the need to restructure evaluation to focus on community members as leaders and facilitators in organizing, planning, and developing processes of self-study. For culturally diverse populations it is necessary...
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Community Economic Development Initiatives: A Descriptive Exploratory Study of Community Shared Agriculture
ABSTRACT This study examines community economic development (CED) initiatives and focuses on community shared agriculture (CSA) as an alternative form of farming to industrialized agriculture. CSA connects the farmers directly with consumers, such...
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Community Development Metaphors for Effective Practice with Aboriginal People
Human beings need each other for their continued existence, both as individuals and as a species; moreover, without continued existence, they can not attain perfection: whereby it follows that they need each other precisely in order to attain perfection....
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Sources of Diversity in Community Development Practice
ABSTRACT This paper focuses on diversity as it exists in community development practice. The authors present the conclusions of a three-year, qualitative study of community development practice conducted in eight countries. Data were collected by...
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Vol. 31, No. 1, January

Editor's Comments
As in our last several volumes, this issue of the Journal has a range of articles that will be of interest to our readers. It begins with an article focusing on American Indian casino gambling which reports on the experiences of several western tribes....
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American Indian Casino Gambling: Issues of Tribal Sovereignty and Economic Development
ABSTRACT Games of chance have been commonplace in the histories of American Indian peoples, but many tribal governments are now engaged in casino gambling as a part of the nationwide expansion of gambling for local economic development. Analysis...
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American Indian Casino Gambling: Issues of Community versus Economic Development
ABSTRACT Antell, Blevins, and Jensen present a useful description of the policy conflicts between Indian casino gambling and tribal sovereignty. However, they fail to distinguish casino gaming as a form of community versus economic development in...
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A Comment on the Subject of Gaming in Indian Country
At the outset, I should say that this is one of the best papers I have read on the subject of Indian gaming. However, this says less about the present article than it does about the sorry state of research on this subject. Be that as it may, I will...
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Response to Comments by Richards and Snipp
We welcome the comments of Richards and Snipp and appreciate the opportunity to clarify and expand on several issues raised by the reviewers of the Antell, Blevins, and Jensen paper on Indian casino gambling. We are in complete agreement with both...
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Levels of Analysis and Conceptual Clarification in Community Attachment and Satisfaction Research: Connections to Community Development
ABSTRACT Two conceptual concerns in the community attachment and satisfaction literature are addressed here: (1) identification and utilization of a proper level of analysis, and (2) clarification of the meanings of community attachment and satisfaction....
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The Use of Community Services by Rural Families in Wisconsin
ABSTRACT The development of rural policy and community services for rural families depends on greater understanding of how families cope with economic change. Survey responses from 1,611 nonmetropolitan Wisconsin households were used to quantify...
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The Impact of Labor Market Involvement on Participation in Community
ABSTRACT In this paper the relationship between labor market involvement and community participation is examined at the community level. Social capital theory postulates that if employment facilitates acquaintanceships, trust, and norms supporting...
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Cooperatives in Non-Agricultural Sectors: Examining a Potential Community Development Tool
ABSTRACT Many communities are seeking alternatives for providing essential products and services to their residents at affordable costs. The cooperative model has been used around the country to provide groceries, clothing, and pharmaceuticals as...
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Gleaners, Do-Gooders, and Balers: Options for Linking Sustainability and Economic Development
ABSTRACT Sustainability and economic development are typically treated as conflicting goals in the literature and in practice. In this paper gleaners, do-gooders, and balers are used metaphorically to suggest that certain people outside the mainstream...
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Ideal Types, Equity, Linkages, and Change in Sustainable Systems
I am little satisfied with journal articles that use "sustainable" as a bandwagon for income redistribution schemes. The review of a recently submitted manuscript promoting "more-fair" sustainability, and little else, triggered a memory of faded newspaper...
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