McNair Papers

McNair Papers is a specializing in Defense topics.

Articles from No. 52-55, October

10. Nonlinearity and a Modern Taxonomy of General Friction
All but one of the historical and conceptual elements necessary for this essay's fourth and final task--recasting general friction in modern terms--have now been introduced. The sole outstanding item is the concept of nonlinearity as it has come to...
11. Implications for Future War, Its Theory, and Its Conduct
Our original point of departure was the notion that foreseeable advances in sensor technologies and information systems may (or will) enable the side exploiting them more effectively to eliminate its "fog of war" while turning the opponent's into a...
1. 500 Years of Confrontation: Indigenous Peoples and Security Policy in Latin America *
The cycle of Indian rebellion and government repression that characterized the first centuries of contact between European and Amerindian peoples can not yet be consigned to the history books. The eruption of an armed movement in southern Mexico, comprised...
1. Background
BACKGROUND On June 1, 1996, the last strategic missiles were shipped from Ukraine to Russia, bringing to an end a contentious issue that had marred the early stages of U.S.-Ukraine relations. In welcoming this development, President Clinton stated,...
1. Complexity, Change, and Challenge
This study assesses the Caribbean security landscape on the eve of the fast-approaching new century with a view to considering what the future portends in the security arena. Engaging in even guarded prospection during this period of history is particularly...
1. the Once and Future Problem of General Friction
Since the end of the U.S.-Soviet Cold War, there has been growing discussion of the possibility that technological advances in the means of combat would produce ftmdamental changes in how future wars will be fought. A number of observers have suggested...
2. Clausewitz's Development of the Unified Concept of a General Friction [Gesamtbegriff Finer Allgemeinen Friktion)
This chapter and the next recapitulate current scholarship concerning Schamhorst, Clausewitz, and the concept of general friction. While this recapitulation does not go appreciably beyond what can be found scattered throughout Peter Paret's Clausewitz...
2. the 1980s in Retrospect
Understanding the Caribbean's present complexity, changes, and challenges requires an appreciation of the recent past. A look back at the decade of the 1980s finds that geopolitics, militarization, intervention, and instability were the major security...
2. Ukraine's Approach to Nuclear Weapons
There were many reasons for Ukraine's inaction on the nuclear front, but one of the fundamental problems was the multiplicity of confusing signals that emanated from its own parliament. While the executive branch maintained its public commitment to...
2. Understanding Ethnic Politics: The Role of External Variables in Brazil and Colombia
The sharp rise in ethnicity-based politics in Latin America in the last 20 years has been the subject of a growing literature in anthropology, sociology, and, recently, political science. (1) Anthropologists have focused on factors internal to the...
3. A Marriage of Convenience: The Mexican Indigenous Movement and the Zapatista Rebellion
Since the startling emergence of an armed insurgency in southern Mexico in January of 1994, much ink has been spilled attempting to explain the roots of this rebellion, the implications of its emergence during a time of slow democratization and rapid...
3. Scharnhorsts Clarity about War as It Actually Is (Eigentliche Krieg)
Today Clausewitz is widely credited with having introduced the notion of Friktion to refer to the impediments encountered in war. It is probably fair to say that he was the first to explore both the positive and negative aspects of general friction...
3. the Changing Strategic Environment
The world witnessed dramatic change and turbulence as the 1980s gave way to the 1990s. The changes critical to the Caribbean are examined in this section. But before doing this it is important to offer a commentary on the subject of security. MEANING...
3. the End of the Bush Administration
During the later stages of the Bush Presidency, the United States undertook a number of steps aimed at coaxing Kiev toward START ratification and accession to the NPT. In addition to the offer of $175 million in Nunn-Lugar funds, the Bush administration...
4. Clausewitz's Mature Concept of General Friction
With the foundation provided by chapters 2 and 3, we can now complete the initial task of clarifying Clausewitz's mature notion of general friction. The account of the concept in On War contains two interlocking difficulties: the absence of a reasonably...
4. Territorial Disputes
Although turbulence and transformations are precipitating changes in many areas, some security issues from the previous era have retained their salience. One issue with continued salience is territorial disputes, one where the dynamics have been changed...
4. the Clinton Administration Approach
At the outset, the Clinton administration was in a quandary about whether to pursue a carrot or stick approach. The Embassy for long had sought to reorient policy so that the United States would give economic assistance to Ukraine and thus underline...
5. Caribbean Geonarcotics
The "Caribbean lies at what Jose Marti once called "the Vortex of the Americas," making it a bridge or front between North and South America. European leaders recognized the strategic importance of this vortex soon "after the 1492 encounter between...
5. Friction before, during, and after Desert Storm
Has general friction been a continuing feature of war since Clausewitz's time? If so, is there any evidence that the "magnitude" of its influence has changed appreciably in recent decades? A minimalist response would be simply to note that detailed...
5. the Defacto Process: The U.S.-Ukraine-Russia Talks
U.S. DEACTIVATION PROPOSALS The new Clinton "administration approach to Ukraine was facilitated by the fact that approaches to the nuclear weapons issue had already taken two roads. There was the legal ratification issue that the Rada had to settle--and...
6. Factors Influencing Ukraine's Ratification
Over the course of 1992 and 1993 a number of circumstances had changed, leading Ukraine to realize the importance of START ratification. In September 1992 Prime Minister Vitold Fokin resigned under pressure from democratic forces who believed he was...
6. Security Collaboration
Despite the considerable regional and international action to combat drugs, collaboration in the Caribbean is not limited to drugs, as a brief examination of the Regional Security System (RSS) here shows. However, before turning to the RSS, it is important...
6. the Intractability of Strategic Surprise
Granting that Clausewitzian friction prevented Coalition forces from achieving important operational-strategic goals despite Desert Storm's lop-sided outcome, why should one take the next step and infer that technological advances in the future will...
7. Conclusion
Brent Scowcroft has stated in hindsight that it was a mistake for the United States to have concentrated so much of its bilateral effort on the nuclear question. The Clinton administration had the benefit of the travails of its predecessor and, while...
7. Strengthening Democracy
The collaboration challenges, some which are manifested in the Regional Security System (RSS), are, however, only part of the landscape of complexity and challenge. A critical part of it relates to the need to strengthen democracy. The most popular...
7. the Inaccessibility of Critical Information
Chapter 6 provided an indirect argument for general friction's relatively undiminished persistence in future war, as opposed to merely documenting its recurrence in past conflicts, and shed new light on several traditional sources of Clausewitzian...
8. Conclusion
In comparison with regions such as the Balkans, the Middle East, and Central Africa, the Caribbean is a peaceful region, but an analysis of the dynamics of the region's complexity, changes, and challenges suggests that the security landscape is fraught...
8. Evolutionary Biology as a Source of Friction and Exemplar for Theory
The previous chapter utilized evolutionary biology to open the door to the possibility that the spatial-temporal inaccessibility of certain information argues that human beings and their institutions can neither eliminate all uncertainty about the...
9. "Situation Awareness" in Air-to-Air Combat and Friction
The last three chapters sought to build indirect arguments supporting the proposition that the potential for, if not the actuality of, general friction is likely to persist more or less undiminished in future wars despite technological advances. This...
Appendix A: Trilateral Statement
THE WHITE HOUSE Office of the Press Secretary (Moscow, Russia) For Immediate Release TRILATERAL STATEMENT AND ANNEX: SUMMARY The Trilateral Statement and Annex signed by Presidents Yeltsin, Kravchuk and Clinton represent a significant victory...
Appendix C: Kuchma Issues Statement on Removal of Nuclear Weapons
FBIS-SOV-96-107 3 June 1996 Ukraine: Kuchma Issues Statement on Removal of Nuclear Weapons LD0106193596 Kiev UT-1 Television Network in Ukrainian 1800 GMT 1 Jun 96 [FBIS Translated Text] Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma today issued the following...
Appendix D: Removal of Nuclear Warheads from Ukraine
THE WHITE HOUSE Office of Press Secretary For Immediate Release June 1, 1996 STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT Removal of Nuclear warheads from Ukraine and Agreement on CFE Flank Issue Ukrainian President Kuchma has announced that all nuclear warheads...
Appendix G: Chronology
July 16, 1990 Ukrainian Rada votes Declaration of State Sovereignty, pledging not to accept, produce or purchase nuclear weapons. July 31, 1991 U.S. and Soviet Union sign START I Treaty. August 24, 1991 Ukraine declares independence, subject...
Overview
Since the Conquest, indigenous communities throughout Latin America have endured with astonishing restraint a multitude of impositions and indignities. 1 Occasionally that restraint has been punctuated by cycles of rebellion and repression. Violent...
Preface
The original version of this paper, completed in December 1995, was condensed by Williamson Murray, editor ofBrassey's Mershon American Defense Annual, for the 1996-1997 edition. This condensation did not include three entire sections that are part...
Preface
General John J. Sheehan, USMC As the 21st century approaches, the international community continues to grapple with the consequences of major shifts in the security environment. The world we now live in is a paradox: political integration and community...