Canadian Journal of Police and Security Services

Articles

Vol. 4, No. 1, Spring

The Effect of Marital Adjustment on the Association between Police Officers' Traumatic Distress and Trauma Disclosure
ABSTRACT This study investigated the influence of relationship adjustment on the association between police distress and police trauma disclosure to partners. One hundred and three Victorian police officers and their intimate partners completed...
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The Ability of Police Investigators to Detect False Confessions
ARTICLE REVIEWED: Kassin, S. M., Meissner, C. A., & Norwick, R. J. (2005). "I'd Know a False Confession if I Saw One": A Comparative Study of College Students and Police Investigators, Law and Human Behavior, 29(2), 211-227. When police investigators...
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Forward Looking Infra-Red Aerial Cameras & Policing: Regina V. Walter Tessling
Early in 1999 the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) in Ontario were involved in a drug investigation. They had received information from a "proven source" (i.e., one whose information in the past had led to charges being laid) to the effect that...
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Using Image Manipulation to Construct Fair Lineups: The Case of the Buddy Holly Glasses
ABSTRACT Constructing and administering lineups is a necessary and important part of police practice. Guidelines for outlining proper procedures have been put forth by the U. S. Department of Justice, and many police departments are making efforts...
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Developing Effective Community Policing Programs through a Therapeutic Jurisprudence Model
ABSTRACT This article suggests that there is a growing disconnect between the practice of community policing and the scientific examination and evaluation of the concept. Specifically, it is suggested that there is little empirical evidence available...
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Assessing the Relationship between Age and Personality Variables on the Psychological and Physiological Well-Being of Police Officers
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between age and various personality variables (i.e., morningness, languidity, flexibility, neuroticism, and extroversion) on a variety of well-being scores, including: (1) physiological...
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Minority Police Applicants Concerns and Assessment of Occupational Roles
ARTICLE REVIEWED: Perrott, S.B. (1999). Visible Minority Applicant Concerns and Assessment of Occupational Role in the Era of Community-based Policing. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 9, 339-353. According to Perrott (1999),...
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Crossing the Thin Blue Line: A Review of the Prevalence, Causes, and Outcomes of Police Burnout
ABSTRACT This review examines the incidence, causes, and outcomes of burnout in police officers. Relative to other professionals who interact with the public, police officers tend to have low levels of emotional exhaustion but high levels of depersonalization...
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Vol. 3, No. 4, December

Special Issue on Building an Understanding for Peace
Now what we have here is failure to communicate --Captain, in the film, Cool Hand Luke The heart of peacemaking will never change, the core principle is love the enemy and consequently one will not have an enemy. Of course one will have a conflict,...
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Choosing the New Guard: A Model for Assessing Replacement Political Personnel in Transitional Regimes
ABSTRACT A fundamental requirement for managed regime change is the identification of new leadership to fill public positions. Candidates need to be evaluated for suitability according to their attributes, but this is an inherently subjective process,...
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Police Training Assistance: The Right Kind of Help
Canada's experiences in supporting security sector reform and police development, particularly in Haiti, suggest some policy options and criteria for managing policy choices. This article considers the current constellation of police assistance efforts,...
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Assessing Police Attitudes toward Mental Illness
ARTICLE REVIEWED: Cotton, D. (2004). The attitudes of Canadian police officers toward the mentally ill. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 27, 135-146. Increasingly in our society, citizens with mental illness are deinstitutionalized...
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Coverpersons and Operators in Undercover Work: The Reappearance of False Identities
ARTICLE REVIEWED: Girodo, M., Deck, T. & Morrison, M. (2002). Dissociative-type identity disturbances in undercover agents: Socio-cognitive factors behind false-identity appearances and reenactments. Social Behavior and Personality, 30, 631-644....
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Post-Offence Conduct: Investigative Strategy
A police investigation of a crime may explore three stages of an offender's conduct: pre-offence activity, the offence itself, and post-offence activity. The first stage includes the elements involved in planning the crime while the second stage represents...
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The Politics of Post-Conflict Policing
This paper explores the political dimensions of policing in post-conflict societies, and makes the case that the reluctance to engage more fully in the politics of post-conflict security provision has been a serious impediment to the success of international...
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Does Tapping the Diasporas for Recruits Provide an Advantage in Policing? the Experience of the Canadian Trained Haitians (CTH)
ABSTRACT This article argued that, although knowledge and skills may be somewhat easy to teach, and for students to learn, mere knowledge is less effective at changing attitudes. This would suggest that reform of policing through simple instruction...
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Vol. 3, No. 2, June

Special Issue on Forensic Science (Part 2)
We are pleased to introduce Part 2 of the Canadian Journal of Police and Security Services' (CJPSS) special issue on Forensic Science. Before briefly describing each of the articles, we would like to extend our appreciation to the editor, Dr. Jeff...
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Fingerprints and Admissibility: Friction Ridges and Science
ABSTRACT For over a century, friction ridges, most notably fingerprints, have been considered the most positive method of personal identification. Friction ridge identification was based on the premise that nature did not repeat and the comparison...
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Identification of Dyes and Pigments Found in Inks Used to Label Iron Pipes: Implications in the Analysis of Pipe Bombs
ABSTRACT When a pipe bomb has been detonated, a variety of evidence can be collected including burned and unburned powder, trigger mechanism(s), and parts of the actual pipe body and end caps. Iron pipe, commonly used in the construction of pipe...
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Forensic Ultraviolet Lights in Clinical Practice: Evidence for the Evidence
ABSTRACT Ultraviolet lights are used in clinical forensic practice, particularly with sexual assault victims. Despite their widespread use, there is little data on either the best wavelengths of light for detecting semen stains, or on the sensitivity...
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Advances in the Reliable Location of Forensic Specimens through Research and Consensus: Best Practice Guidelines for Dog and Orthogonal Instrumental Detectors
ABSTRACT This article compares the detection of forensic specimens by biological and instrumental methods. While detector dogs are still widely used, a variety of instruments are available and others are under development which hold the promise...
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Suggestibility and Children's False Admissions of Guilt
ARTICLE REVIEWED: Candel, I., Merckelbach, H., Loyen, S., & Reyskens, H. (2005). "I hit the Shift-key and then the computer crashed": Children and false admissions. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 1381-1387. Although a confession...
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Is There a Need for a Short Form of the Cognitive Interview?
ARTICLE REVIEWED: Davis, M. R., McMahon, M., & Greenwood, K. M. (2005). The efficacy of mnemonic components of the cognitive interview: Towards a shortened variant for time-critical investigations. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19, 75-93. ...
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Assessing the Use of Force among Male and Female Police Officers
ARTICLE REVIEWED: Hoffman, P. B. & Hickey, E. R. (2005). Use of force by female police officers. Journal of Criminal Justice, 33, 145-151. Although first female police officer was hired in the United States in 1910, the initial job description...
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Use of Drug Detection Dogs during Traffic Stops: Illinois V. Caballes
In January 2005, the Supreme Court of the United States issued a decision on the use of drug detection dogs during a lawful traffic stop. In a 6-2 decision, the Court held that, "a dog sniff conducted during a concededly lawful traffic stop that reveals...
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PowerCase as Electronic Evidence in the Courtroom: Waterloo Regional Police Service's Innovative Use of Case Management Software
"Between May of 1987 and December of 1992, Paul Bernardo raped or sexually assaulted at least eighteen women in Scarborough, Peel, and St. Catharines, and killed three women in St. Catharines and Burlington, Ontario. Paul Bernardo is a unique type...
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Vol. 2, No. 4, December

Decision-Making and Young Offenders: Examining the Role of Discretion in Police Judgments
Police employ a significant amount of discretion when dealing with juvenile offenders. Specifically, officers often have to decide whether to issue an informal warning, a formal warning, or apprehend a juvenile offender. The decision may depend on...
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Effects of Deception on Eyewitness Reports
Lay persons were presented with a written description of an armed robbery and shooting and asked to assume that they were witnesses to the crime. Participants were randomly assigned to a truthful role playing condition or a deceptive condition, and...
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Gender and Leadership in the Canadian Forces Combat Arms: A Qualitative Study of Assimilation vs. Integration (1)
Despite numerous studies showing women's leadership effectiveness, the stereotype of "effective leader" remains masculine in content. Research also reflects the dilemma that women leaders face, between adopting a masculine and a feminine leadership...
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Management of Internet Fraud by Law Enforcement Agencies
Burns, R. G., Whitworth, K. H., & Thompson, C. Y. (2004). Assessing law enforcement preparedness to address Internet fraud. Journal of Criminal Justice, 32, 477-493. With a growing number of people engaging in e-commerce and managing their finances...
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Exploring the Mediating Roles of Cognitive and Behavioural Coping Strategies on the Relationship between Age and Well-Being
The aim of this study was to investigate the possible mediating role of various cognitive and behavioural coping strategies on the relationship between age and psychological (i.e., cognitive and somatic anxiety) and physiological (i.e., chronic fatigue,...
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The Law with Respect to Investigative Detention: Philip Henry Mann V. Her Majesty the Queen
Late on the evening of December 23, 2000 police in Winnipeg received a telephone call informing them of a break and enter in progress in the downtown area. A patrol car was dispatched to the scene and the officers were provided with a detailed description...
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Editors Note
Over the past two years, the Canadian Journal of Police and Security Services has sought to provide its readership with an empirically rigorous forum for the discussion and dissemination of information regarding police, military and correctional services....
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Racial Pride and Consciousness Trilogy: Addressing Hate Crime and Racial Discord through Community Policing
The fundamentals of community policing are not altogether new. The Police Services Act of 1990 legislated community-oriented policing as a responsibility of the Chief of Police. Over the past two decades, the Toronto Police Service (TPS) has tested...
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Vol. 2, No. 3, September

Perceived Social and Cultural Gaps: Views of Senior Canadian Forces Officers
This article explores the perceptions of differences and similarities between the military and civilian cultures, based on an analysis of survey responses from a purposive sample of 168 senior Canadian Forces (CF) officers. The study is set within...
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Dimensions of Moral Intensity and Ethical Decision-Making: An Empirical Study of Department of National Defence. (DND) Employees and Canadian Forces (CF) Members
This study examined the influence of five dimensions of moral intensity (Jones, 1991) on three stages of the ethical decision-making process (Rest, 1986). The five dimensions of moral intensity were: magnitude of consequences, temporal immediacy, social...
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Measuring Professional Attitudes in Canada's Army
Using a paper-and-pencil survey format, measures of professional attitudes were obtained from 2,470 members of the land component (i.e., army) of the Canadian Forces. Six dimensions of military professionalism were examined in the study--three derived...
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Research and Organizational Change: Women in the Canadian Forces
In recent decades, social science research has provided valuable input to Canadian Forces (CF) decisions to expand the roles of women in the military as well as the processes developed to support the increasing participation of women. In addition,...
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Behavioural Science Research in the Canadian Military
When Jeff Pfeifer, Editor of the Canadian Journal of Police and Security Services (CJPSS), asked me to guest edit this special issue on behavioural science research in the military, I enthusiastically agreed. First, as a member of the editorial board...
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Transformational Leadership, Ethical Behaviour, and Leadership Effectiveness in Military Officer Candidates
This study examined the association between peers' perceptions of transformational leadership and ethical behaviour, as well as leadership effectiveness. Seventy-five military officer candidates were rated by 168 peers on four transformational leadership...
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The Development of Trauma-Related Symptoms in Veterans of Operation Desert Storm
Articles Reviewed: Southwick, S. M., Morgan, A., Nagy, L. M., Bremner, D., Nicolaou, A. L., Johnson, D. R., Rosenheck, R., Charney, D. S. (1993). Trauma-related symptoms in veterans of operation desert storm: a preliminary report. The American Journal...
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Examining the Relationship between Military Leadership Characteristics and Gender Role Stereotypes
Article Reviewed: Boyce, L., A., & Herd, A., M. (2003). The relationship between gender role stereotypes and requisite military leadership characteristics. Sex Roles, 49(7/8). Phenomena such as globalization, the rapid development of technology,...
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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Minority Status as a Risk Factor
Article Reviewed: Friedman, M.J., Schnurr, P.P., Sengupta, A., Holmes, T., & Ashcraft, M. (2004). The Hawaii Vietnam veterans project: Is minority status a risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder? The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease,...
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Creating Computers That Lie like Humans: Virtual-Reality Interrogation Training
Article Reviewed: McKenzie, F., Scerbo, M., Catanzaro, J., & Phillips, M. (2003). Nonverbal indicators of malicious intent: Affective components for interrogative virtual reality training. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 59(1-2),...
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Vol. 2, No. 2, June

Public Attitudes and Fear of Crime Victimization: Assessing the Role of Attitude Formation Theory
A review of the current literature indicates that, despite the large quantity of research on fear of crime, it has remained an elusive concept that is difficult to measure and assess. Research findings on this issue are varied and often contradictory...
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Prison Mental Heath: Fostering the Role of Correctional Line Staff as Therapeutic Agents
Article Reviewed: Dvoskin, J.A., Spiers, E., M. (2004). On the role of correctional officers in prison mental health. Psychiatric Quarterly, 75, 41-59. According to Dvoskin and Spiers (2004), the primary charge of the correctional system is to...
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Investigating the Affect of Stress on Police Officer Psychological and Physiological Well-Being
The aim of this study was to utilize a subset population initially reported in Knowles and Bull (2003) to investigate the impact of perceived stress on individual psychological and physiological well-being. Of the original 129 participants participating...
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Alias Use among Prison Inmates
Although aliases are not always for the purpose of deception or criminal behaviour, it is likely that the dominant stereotype is that of a criminal alias and, as such, much of the research on alias use has focused on prison inmates. The current study...
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Preventing Bullying Behaviour among Schoolchildren
The recognition of the importance of preventing bullying behaviour among schoolchildren combined with an increased understanding of the nature of bullying behaviour has led schools and communities to rethink how safety plans aimed at increasing security...
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Recruitment, Training Standards and Police Certification: Insights from Patterns of Misconduct among Previously Experienced Officers
Research at a major Canadian police service identified an unusually high rate of misconduct on the part of previously experienced officers within a few years of recruitment. Through an innovative early warning system, patterns of misconduct emerged...
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Vol. 2, No. 1, March

Best Practices Approach to the Electronic Monitoring of Youth
Youth-focused electronic monitoring (EM) programs were initially implemented in the late 1980s in the United States. The growing popularity of these programs can be noted by their development throughout the world, such as the recent establishment of...
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Psychological and Physical Benefits of Circuit Weight Training in Law Enforcement Personnel
Norvell, N., and Belles, D. (1993). Psychological and physical benefits of circuit weight training in law enforcement personnel. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 520-527. Regular exercise is believed to result in improvements in...
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Evaluating the Utility of Electronic Monitoring: Why Don't We Listen to the Research?
Article Reviewed: Bonta, J., Wallace-Capretta, S., & Rooney, J. (2000). Can electronic monitoring make a difference? An evaluation of three Canadian programs. Crime & Delinquency, 46(1), 61-75. Electronic monitoring (EM) was implemented...
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Police Liability for Failure to Comply with Lawful Duty
Odhavji Estate v. Woodhouse, Gerrits and Boothby, et al. In this case the estate of Manish Odhavji sued two Ontario detectives and a Chief of Police for the tort of misfeasance (impropriety) in public office. According to the pleadings the defendant...
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Assessment and Treatment of Sexual Offenders in Saskatchewan
The sexual abuse of children is a serious social concern. Thus, sexual offenders must receive accurate assessments and effective treatment programming to minimise re-offence rates. There is ample evidence in the literature to support the assertion...
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Merging Traffic Enforcement with Rural Life in Alberta
Evidence indicates that in Alberta injuries and fatalities due to traffic collisions are of a higher proportion and greater severity in rural areas than in urban areas. Although one response to this finding may be to increase police traffic enforcement,...
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Judgements of Deception and Accuracy of Performance in Eyewitness Testimony
Undergraduate psychology students were shown a videotape of eight eyewitnesses, four of whom were instructed to respond truthfully, and four to respond deceptively, in their descriptions and photo identification of a target person. In addition to being...
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Urban Aboriginal Victims of Crime and Their Police Reporting Practices
Canadian research indicates that victims of crime do not consistently report their victimization experiences to the police. This is particularly true among minority and marginalized groups in society, such as Aboriginal people. While Aboriginal people...
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Vol. 1, No. 4, December

Memory Errors for Everyday Events: Forensic Implications
ABSTRACT Confusions between imagery and memory are a serious forensic concern and although they have been demonstrated in several laboratory contexts, their frequency has not been examined for naturalistic circumstances. As such, we report two...
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Recent Research: Effects of Stress on Police and Citizen Eyewitness Recall
Stanny, C. J. & Johnson, T. C. (2000). Effects of stress induced by a simulated shooting on recall by police and citizen witnesses. American Journal of Psychology, 113(3), 359-386. Research indicates that stress experienced by eyewitnesses...
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Recent Research: Exploring Officers' Acceptance of Community Policing
Novak, K.L., Alarid, L.F., & Lucas, W.L. (2003). Exploring officers' acceptance of community policing: Implications for policy implementation. Journal of Criminal Justice, 31, 57-71. Community policing (CP) is generally characterized as a...
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Assessing the Impact of Shift Work and Stress on the Psychological and Physiological Wellbeing of Police Officers
ABSTRACT The primary aim of this article is to assess the impact of a high stress shift work occupation (i.e., police work) on psychological (i.e., cognitive and somatic anxiety) and physiological (i.e., chronic fatigue, digestive and cardiovascular...
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A Longitudinal Multi-Method Evaluation of a High School Resource Officer Program
ABSTRACT Numerous police services in both Canada and the United States offer High School Resource Officer (HSRO) programs despite a paucity of research on the effectiveness of such programs. As such, this article reviews the theoretical basis...
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Measuring Morale, Cohesion and Confidence in Leadership: What Are the Implications for Leaders?
ABSTRACT Although high morale, unit cohesion, and confidence in leadership are considered by military leaders to be essential elements for victory on the battlefield, research indicates that officer assessments of these variables are generally...
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Understanding Computer Crime: A Comparative Analysis of Convicted Canadian Computer and General Criminals
ABSTRACT In 1996 the Criminal Code of Canada was amended to include a number of "computer crimes." Despite the dramatic growth in the use of personal computers and the internet, psychologists have paid surprisingly little attention to the characteristics...
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Vol. 1, No. 3, September

The Effect of Police Investigation Time on Sentence Disposition in White-Collar Theft and Fraud Criminal Cases
ABSTRACT Criminological research has largely ignored the effect of police investigation time on white-collar case dispositions in the criminal justice system. White-collar cases typically involve a large investment of investigation time with...
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Enhancing Older Witnesses' Identification Performance: Context Reinstatement Is Not the Answer
ABSTRACT The population in many counties around the world is aging and, as such, older adults are increasingly likely to be witnesses to crime. In the current study older and younger participants viewed a simulated crime event and, prior to viewing...
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Lawyers' Perceptions of Police Officers' Performance in Court
ABSTRACT Police witnesses often provide crucial evidence in court. However, little research exists concerning positive and negative aspects of the presentation of police evidence in court and ways in which the presentation of police evidence...
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Alibi Evidence in Criminal Investigations and Trials: Psychological and Legal Factors
ABSTRACT In a criminal investigation a variety of people potentially involved in the crime are often expected to remember their actions and whereabouts at the time of the event, and then to corroborate their recollection so that they can be ruled...
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Vol. 1, No. 2, June

Recruitment and Selection of Community Policing Officers: Expanding the Applicant Pool and Identifying More Suitable Recruits
ABSTRACT This research focuses on developing strategies for the more effective recruitment and selection of community policing (CP) officers. University students (N = 178) reviewed descriptions of the law enforcement policing (LEP) and (CP) models....
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From Jails to Healing Lodges: Evaluating the Impact of Correctional Facilities on Offender Adaptation
ABSTRACT The purpose of the present study is to compare three types of correctional facilities within the province of Saskatchewan (i.e., Provincial Jails, Community Training Residences, and the Aboriginal Spiritual Healing Lodge) in terms of...
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Recent Research: Reducing Mistaken Identifications through Lineup Procedures
Lindsay, R. C. L. & Bellinger, K. (1999). Alternatives to the sequential lineup: The importance of controlling the pictures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 315-321. The use of lineups for identification purposes has a long and varied...
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Recent Research: Punishment and Offending
Pogarsky, G. & Piquero, A. R. (2003). Can punishment encourage offending? Investigating the "resetting" effect." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 40, 95-120. It can be argued that punishment has become a widely utilized behaviour...
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Dix V. Canada (Attorney General) et Al.: Reasonable Grounds and Officer Responsibility for Thorough and Lawful Investigations
On October 1, 1994 the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) Sherwood Park detachment was notified that the bodies of two men had been found at the premises of a paper recycling company, located just outside Edmonton city limits. Although the initial...
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Investigative Interviewing and the Detection of Deception: Who Is Deceiving Whom?
ABSTRACT Authorities on investigative interviewing have long emphasized the importance of developing the ability to detect deception by observing nonverbal behaviour. As a result, deception detection has come to be regarded by many as a fundamental...
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Police Leadership and Ethics: Training and Policy Recommendations
ABSTRACT Past research indicates that the issue of police leadership and ethics may be informed by many approaches and theories which speak to areas such as individual moral development as well as organizational and situational factors. It is...
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Police Officers' Knowledge about Mental Illness
ABSTRACT Although a need exists in the police community to provide training for police officers to aid in their work with mentally ill individuals, little is known about the existing or baseline level of knowledge of the police and how that relates...
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Recent Research: Child Victim Interviews
Lamb, M.E., & Garretson, M.E. (2003). The effects of interviewer and child gender on the informativeness of alleged child sexual victims in forensic interviews. Law and Human Behavior, 27, 157-171. It has been suggested that Hugo Munsterberg...
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Vol. 1, No. 1, March

Research and Practice in Canadian Police and Security Services: The Road Less Traveled
It is truly an honour for me to welcome you to the first issue of the Canadian Journal of Police and Security Services. As editor of the journal I find myself experiencing both a sense of pride as well as a sense of wariness with the birth of this...
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Best Practice Recommendations for Eyewitness Evidence Procedures: New Ideas for the Oldest Way to Solve a Case
ABSTRACT This article provides "best practice " recommendations for collecting and preserving evidence using eyewitness identification procedures. Suggested procedures are based on decades of social science research as well as the recommended...
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It Is Time for Real Change: In Search of a Compensation Strategy for Community Policing
ABSTRACT This paper discusses alternatives to job-based compensation systems that would incorporate Total Quality Management (TQM) principles into the policing industry and move police services toward fuller adoption of a community-policing model....
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Ethics and the Police-Based Researcher: Reviewing the Issues and Obligations
ABSTRACT This paper argues that the increased level of participation in research by police services has culminated in a parallel increase in the number of police-based researchers. These researchers, for the most part, are comprised of police...
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Predeployment Family Concerns and Soldier Well-Being: The Impact of Family Concerns on the Predeployment Well-Being of Canadian Forces Personnel
ABSTRACT Recent operational demands have meant that many soldiers spend an increasing amount of time away from home on long, overseas deployments. Past research indicates that family concerns are an important source of stress throughout a deployment,...
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The Psychology of Interrogations and False Confessions: Research and Recommendations
ABSTRACT Wrongful convictions have increasingly garnished media attention both in North America and Britain. In addition to a variety of factors, instances of false confession have been identified as a contributing cause of some wrongful convictions....
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Recent Research: Implementing Community-Oriented Policing
Adams, R.E., Rohe, W.M., Arcury, T.A. (2002). Implementing community-oriented policing: Organizational change and street officer attitudes. Crime & Delinquency, 48, 399-430. Community-oriented policing (COP) is generally defined as a style...
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Recent Research: Job Stress and Marriage in Police Couples
Roberts, N.A., & Levenson, R.W. (2001). The Remains of the Workday: Impact of Job Stress and Exhaustion on Marital Interaction in Police Couples. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 1052-1067. It is clear that policing is one of the most stressful...
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Recent Research: Comparing the Decision to Arrest in Community versus Traditional Policing
Novak, K.J., Frank, F., Smith, B.W., & Engel, R.S. (2002). Revisiting the Decision to Arrest: Comparing Beat and Community Officers. Crime and Delinquency, 48, 70-98. It might be argued that with the increasing implementation of community-oriented...
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Regina versus Minh Khuan Mac: The Law with Respect to Credit Card Forgery
Charges in this case arose out of a lengthy police investigation in Ontario of three individuals allegedly involved in a variety of criminal enterprises. The investigation resulted in a 31-count indictment based on a number of sections of the criminal...
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