International Journal of Peace Studies

Articles

Vol. 15, No. 2, Autumn-Winter

Embedding the Peace Process: The Role of Leadership, Change and Government in Implementing Key Reforms in Policing and Local Government in Northern Ireland
Introduction While negotiating the Belfast Agreement was a fundamentally political venture in which rights, equality and policing and justice were emphasized, structurally embedding the Northern Ireland peace process required the implementation...
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From DDR to Security Promotion: Connecting National Programs to Community Initiatives
Introduction Disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) is a set of activities that forms part of the strategies for peacebuilding after civil war. Peace agreements often include provisions for DDR in order to reduce the number of people...
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Land Rights and Peacebuilding: Challenges and Responses for the International Community
Introduction Secure rights to land is important to the development of economic activities, capital accumulation, food security, and a wide variety of other socioeconomic benefits. It is generally thought that secure land rights lead to increased...
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From Self-Otherization to Self-Solidification: A Discursive Analysis of People's Visions of Peace in Taiwan
Peace has been embraced, almost cross-culturally, as an ideal state of human existence that people aspire to. Yet individuals' conceptualizations of peace vary in accordance with an array of factors such as life experiences, socio-cultural- natural,...
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Vol. 15, No. 1, Spring-Summer

Sustainable Conflict Transformation an Analytical Model for Assessing the Contribution of Development Activities to Peacebuilding
Reducing overt conflict requires reduction in levels of underdevelopment. Groups which seek to satisfy their identity and security needs through conflict are in effect seeking change in the structure of their society. (...) Studying protracted conflict...
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The Economic Crisis, Violent Conflict, and Human Development
1. Introduction The unfolding global economic crisis is expected to bring the world economy into recession in 2009. Figure 1 shows the population weighted real GDP growth from 1991 to 2009 (estimates for 2008 and projection for 2009) for the world...
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The Perspectives of Reconciliation and Healing among Young People in Vukovar (Croatia)
Introduction Most of people in conflict areas found themselves trapped in inter-group conflict against their will. They go through the hell of the conflict for years (e.g., Northern Ireland, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina), and develop a psychological...
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Opening the Black Box: Reconsidering Needs Theory through Psychoanalysis and Critical Theory
I. Introduction This paper is an attempt to address the challenge posed by Richard E. Rubenstein in his article, "Basic Human Needs: The Next Steps in Theory Development" (Rubenstein, 2001). The very last line of the article reads, "How can the...
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Vol. 14, No. 2, Autumn-Winter

Editorial Notes
The Journal promotes discussion about various issues in peace research, including but not limited to theories of conflict resolution, social justice, cultural survival for indigenous people, human needs and security, nonviolent social change, peace...
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Powerful Actors Make a Difference: Theorizing Power Attributes of Nonstate Actors
Introduction The changing world order encompasses changes in the nature of international conflict, highlighting the rise in the number, power and salience of ethnic nonstate actors (ethnic-NSAs) in major world events. While global terrorism attracts...
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Chicken and Egg? Sequencing in Transitional Justice: The Case of Uganda
Introduction The processes of transitional justice and social reconstruction aim, broadly, to repair the social elements of a society. As I have written elsewhere, "transitional justice is engaged in helping societies move either from war to peace,...
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Failing Consociationalism in Lebanon and Integrative Options
Lebanese Governing System and the Crisis of Consociationalism Lebanon has come to satisfy the conditions under which most consociational systems have arisen. In 1943, the Lebanese National Covenant (Al-Methak Al-Watany) established corporate consociationalism...
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The Emergence of Human Security: A Constructivist View
"The state remains the fundamental purveyor of security. Yet it often fails to fulfill its security obligations.... That is why attention must now shift from the security of the state to the security of the people--to human security." --Commission...
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Time Span as a Factor in Contact Intervention: Implication for Peace Education Programs
There is ample research evidence that contact intervention programs are of the most popular and successful methods for enhance positive intergroup relations between conflict groups (Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006). Most effort is now invested in studying...
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Vol. 14, No. 1, Spring-Summer

UN Blue: An Examination of the Interdependence between UN Peacekeeping and Peacemaking
Introduction A critical and insistent theme for the analyst of United Nations peacekeeping and peacemaking is that of success and failure. Why else bother reviewing and evaluating if the ultimate objective is not to ascertain how to make these ventures...
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The Anti-War Movement versus the War against Iraq
Introduction Following the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States President George Bush declared a "war on terrorism." The United States invaded Afghanistan on October 2, 2001, and then Iraq on March 20, 2003. To support these efforts,...
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One Step Forward, Two Steps Backward: The United States Institute of Peace
Knowledge-Producing Institutions and Hegemony Hegemonic power structures, be they domestic or international, rest on a tissue of ideas that is beefed up with economic and military muscle. Rationality dictates that powerful actors in a society or...
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Editorial Notes
The Journal promotes discussion about various issues in peace research, including but not limited to theories of conflict resolution, social justice, cultural survival for indigenous people, human needs and security, nonviolent social change, peace...
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Passive Healing of the Aftermath of Intractable Conflicts
Intractable conflicts (hereafter 'conflicts') are prevalent worldwide (Coleman, 2000; Kriesberg, 2000). These conflicts cause severe, wide-scale, negative damage, both material and psychological, to the parties involved (Coleman, 2000; Lira, 2001;...
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Peace Negotiations and Peace Talks: The Peace Process in the Public Sphere
Introduction "The ever present possibility of combat," according to Carl Schmitt's famous doctrine, defines the real antithetical categories underling the notion of the "political:" that of a friend or an enemy. During times of peace and stability,...
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Vol. 13, No. 2, Autumn-Winter

Bridging the Impossible? Confronting Barriers to Dialogue between Israelis and Germans and Israelis and Palestinians
Introduction ... I found myself sitting engulfed in an endless cloud of cigarette smoke, wedged between five Palestinian women. Thoughts were going through my head: I have never been among people who smoke so much! Doesn't the smell bother...
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A Conceptual Framework for Public Health Analysis of War and Defence Policy
Introduction Deaths rates in war reached unprecedented levels in the 20th century, with the increase in deaths far out of proportion to increases in population. There were twice as many civilian deaths (34 million) as military deaths (17 million)...
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Liberia's Truth and Reconciliation Commission: An Interim Assessment
Introduction After 14 years of civil war that left 200,000 dead and a million displaced in a small country of four million people, in 2003 Liberia's warring factions concluded a peace agreement that called for the creation of a truth and reconciliation...
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Security Issues and New Transnational Peace-Related Movements in East Asia, the 1990s and 2000s
Introduction Since the end of the Cold War, scholars have debated over whether or not East Asia is "ripe for rivalry" and recurrent tensions and crises in the Taiwan Straits and the Korean Peninsula since the early 1990s have made this region of...
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El Salvador: Contradictions of Neoliberalism and Building Sustainable Peace
Sixteen years ago the Government of El Salvador and the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN) signed the Chapultepec Accords, which ended the nearly 12-year civil war. The peace process in El Salvador has been hailed by many as a "success"...
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Vol. 13, No. 1, Spring-Summer

Mission Accomplished?: Israel's "Four Mothers" and the Legacies of Successful Antiwar Movements
After climbing a great hill, one only finds that there are many more hills to climb. --Nelson Mandela, Long Walk to Freedom Introduction Four Mothers--Leaving Lebanon in Peace, according to journalistic and academic sources, was a remarkably...
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What Makes an Effective Antiwar Movement? Theme-Issue Introduction
Antiwar Movements: Definitional Considerations The contributions to this Special Issue of the International Journal of Peace Studies consider antiwar protests' potential to influence national-security policies. They are particularly concerned with...
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Strategic Changes and Cultural Adaptations: Explaining Differential Outcomes in the International Plowshares Movement
Introduction For decades, disarmament movements in various regions have been working to ban weapons of mass destruction. During this time, organizers have built ties to their counterparts in other countries. These international links enable activists...
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Resisting Occupation or Institutionalizing Control? Israeli Women and Protest in West Bank Checkpoints
Introduction The Napoleonic wars initiated the modern republican order in which citizens, in return for security, participate in the political and military ambitions of the nation-state, and in defense of country and nation (Clausewitz, 1993). In...
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He Anti-Contra-War Campaign: Organizational Dynamics of a Decentralized Movement
Introduction The U.S.-directed Contra war against Sandinista Nicaragua in the 1980s sparked an anti-interventionist campaign that involved over one thousand U.S. peace and justice organizations (Central America Resource Center, 1987). The anti-Contra-war...
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Vol. 12, No. 2, Summer-Winter

Track II Interventions and the Kurdish Question in Turkey: An Analysis Using a Theories of Change Approach
Abstract In October 2005, a small number of prominent members of the Turkish academy and NGO sector were brought to Sofia, Bulgaria for three days to discuss the Kurdish question in Turkey. Using the discussions from the workshop as a starting point,...
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The EU as a Peace Building System: Deconstructing Nationalism in an Era of Globalization
Abstract It is surprising that in the field of International Peace and Conflict Studies, little attention is given to the European Union (EU). This article explores the EU's evolution and polity from the vantage point of its relevance and contribution...
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The Contours of Solidarity and Division among Global Movements
Abstract This is a study of the contours of solidarity and division among the transnational social movements that represent the progressive forces of contemporary global civil society. We examine the relative sizes of these movements, their growth...
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Crucial Narratives: Performance Art and Peace Building
Abstract This is a U.S.-based study that explores and explains how performance art interventions can complement traditional and transformative interventions in the field of conflict resolution through the creation of an "alternative reality" among...
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Vol. 12, No. 1, Spring-Summer

Transforming Islamic-Western Identity Conflict: A Framework for Strategic Engagement
Abstract Recent years have witnessed an unsettling polarization, politicization, and securitization of cultural and religious identities linked to "Islam" and "the West." Political and military conflicts between the United States and various Middle...
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Reconciliation: Aspects, Growth, and Sequences
Abstract This paper explores the several aspects of the process of reconciliation: the units engaged in reconciliation, the dimensions of reconciliation, and the degree and symmetry between the units along each dimension. Various combinations of...
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Peace Ecology: An Emerging Paradigm in Peace Studies
Abstract This article explores the peacebuilding potential of the environment beyond "environmental problems" from the perspective of two interactive and interacting paradigms: peace studies and environmental studies. A thorough investigation reveals...
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Sexual Violence and Armed Conflict: Complex Dynamics of Re-Victimization
Abstract This article first examines two types of causes of sexual violence in armed conflict: systemic, or more distant causes, and more proximate, or situational causes, including the role of "runaway norms." In the second part, the article draws...
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Vol. 11, No. 2, Autumn-Winter

Military Intervention and Prospects for Democratization
Abstract Even before the Iraq war of 2003, a body of literature was developing concerning the possibility of implanting democracy in developing states. Recent works by Mark Peceny (1999a and 1999b) suggest that those U.S. military interventions...
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For the Need for New Thinking
Abstract Credible commentators have argued that humanity stands before a major challenge: learning to live together. This paper expands on this theme, suggesting several dimensions of "new thinking" about world affairs that the authors feel are...
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Knowledge Networking: Implications for Peacebuilding Activities
Abstract It is increasingly recognised that the mobilisation and exchange of knowledge between different sectors (such as academia, policymakers, and practitioners) and regions (between North and South as well as among conflict regions) can be of...
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The International Journal of Peace Studies after Ten Years
What a pleasure it is to write an introduction to an issue of the International Journal of Peace Studies that celebrates the fact that it has survived, and prospered, for more than a decade. As I write the introduction to this issue in September 2006,...
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Globalization, State Failure, and Collective Violence: The Case of Sierra Leone
Abstract The focus of this article is the interaction of negative globalization, state failure, and collective violence (and collapse). The relationship between these is analyzed in the context of long term, intermediate, and precipitating factors...
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The Peacebuilding Dilemma: Civil-Military Cooperation in Stability Operations
Abstract The nature of complex humanitarian relief, peacebuilding, and reconstruction missions increasingly forces military and civilian actors to operate in the same space at the same time thereby challenging their ability to remain impartial,...
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Vol. 11, No. 1, Spring-Summer

Reason, Peace, Transitional Justice, and Punishment
Abstract Moving from repression or tyranny toward the rule of law and reason is fraught with difficulties. One question of transitional justice is whether those responsible for the horrors of the previous regime should be punished or whether those...
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State-Building in Bosnia: The Limits of 'Informal Trusteeship'
Abstract Many commentators suggest that the transition to Bosnian ownership has been held back by the Dayton framework, which created a weak central state and a country divided into two separate Entities, the Republika Srpska and the Muslim-Croat...
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Beyond the Time and Space of Peace Talks: Re-Appropriating the Peace Process in Sri Lanka
Abstract A peace process almost always acts as the catalyst to transition from conflict. In reality, the peace process is usually dominated by peace negotiations between the main contending parties who are able to direct the content and progress...
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Challenges of Peace Research
Abstract The Secretary General of the International Peace Research Association (IPRA) responds to one of the most frequently asked questions in the field of peace studies: "What are the challenges facing peace researchers in the 21 century?" In...
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The Way to Peace: A Buddhist Perspective
Abstract This article provides a survey of the Buddhist vision of peace in the light of peace studies. According to the Buddha's teaching of Dependent Origination, everything, including the psychophysical compound that we call individual, exists...
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Vol. 10, No. 2, Autumn-Winter

Mutual Vulnerability and the Implementation of Peace Agreements: Examples from Mozambique, Angola, and Liberia
Abstract Many argue that peace agreements should contain provisions of extensive power-sharing arrangements and international intervention in order for their implementation to succeed. Yet, despite the presence of these arrangements, many countries...
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Theories of Conflict and the Iraq War
Abstract The article examines the U.S. decision to invade Iraq from a range of analytic perspectives--realism, liberalism, elite interests, ideological influences, and personal and social psychology--in order to better understand the causes of the...
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The Political Economy of Peacebuilding: A Critical Theory Perspective
Abstract The ideology of the liberal peace has propelled the political economies of war-torn societies into a scheme of global convergence towards "market liberalisation". This orthodoxy was an uncontestable assumption underlying external economic...
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Transnational Dialogue: Building the Social Infrastructure for Transnational Feminist Networks
Abstract Feminist transnational organizing produces complex and conflictual relationships. In particular, global conferences are often a place for women to discover their differences. Studying the conflicts that arise during women's transnational...
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The Politics of Representation: A Critical Discourse Analysis of an Aljazeera Special Report
Abstract This paper focuses on the role of language in social life, specifically on discourse as the focus of political struggle, i.e. the struggle for the power of representation. It reports on the results of a discourse analysis of twelve articles...
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