George Berkeley

George Berkeley (bär´klē, bûr–), 1685–1753, Anglo-Irish philosopher and clergyman, b. Co. Kilkenny, Ireland. Educated at Trinity College, Dublin, he became a scholar and later a fellow there. Most of Berkeley's important work in philosophy was done in his younger years. His Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision (1709), A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge (1710), and the famous Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous (1713) are among his more important works. At considerable personal sacrifice he organized a movement to establish a college in the Bermudas to convert the indigenous peoples, going to Rhode Island in 1728 to wait for promised support. This support never came, and after three years he returned to England. He was made bishop of Cloyne in 1734. Berkeley in his subjective idealism went beyond Locke, who had argued that such qualities as color and taste arise in the mind while primary qualities of matter such as extension and weight have existence independent of the mind. Berkeley held that both types of qualities are known only in the mind and that therefore there is no existence of matter independent of perception (esse est percipi). The observing mind of God makes possible the continued apparent existence of material objects. God arouses sensations in us in a regular coherent order. Selves and God make up the universe. Berkeley felt that his argument constituted a complete disproof of atheism. He believed that qualities, not things, are perceived and that the perception of qualities is relative to the perceiver.

See edition of his works by A. A. Luce and T. E. Jessop (9 vol., 1948–57); G. Pitcher, ed., The Philosophy of George Berkeley (8 vol., 1988–89); biographies by J. O. Urmson (1982) and G. J. Warnock (1983).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2013, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

A Metaphysics for the Mob: The Philosophy of George Berkeley
John Russell Roberts.
Oxford University Press, 2007
Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Berkeley and the Principles of Human Knowledge
Robert J. Fogelin.
Routledge, 2001
Berkeley: An Interpretation
Kenneth P. Winkler.
Clarendon Press, 1989
Berkeley's Thought
George S. Pappas.
Cornell University Press, 2000
Berkeley's Idealism: A Critical Examination
Georges Dicker.
Oxford University Press, 2011
Principles of Human Knowledge and Three Dialogues
George Berkeley; Howard Robinson.
Oxford University Press, 1996
Works on Vision
George Berkeley; Colin Turbayne Murray.
Bobbs-Merrill, 1963
Alciphron, or, The Minute Philosopher: In Focus
David Berman.
Routledge, 1993
Berkeley's Theory of Vision
D. M. Armstrong.
Melbourne University Press, 1960
The Dialectic of Immaterialism
A. A. Luce.
Hodder and Stoughton, 1963
The Unconscious Origin of Berkeley's Philosophy
Ernest Jones; John Oulton Wisdom.
Hogarth Press, 1953
Locke, Berkeley, Hume: Central Themes
Jonathan Bennett.
Clarendon Press, 1971
The Empiricists
R. S. Woolhouse.
Oxford University Press, 1988
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 7 "George Berkeley (1685-1753)"
Postnationalist Ireland: Politics, Culture, Philosophy
Richard Kearney.
Routledge, 1997
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 9 "George Berkeley: We Irish Think Otherwise"
A History of Irish Thought
Thomas Duddy.
Routledge, 2002
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 5 "Wonderfully Mending the World: George Berkeley and Jonathan Swift"
British Philosophy and the Age of Enlightenment
Stuart Brown.
Routledge, 1996
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 5 "George Berkeley"
The Many Faces of Philosophy: Reflections from Plato to Arendt
Amélie Oksenberg Rorty.
Oxford University Press, 2003
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