Idealism (Philosophy)


idealism, the attitude that places special value on ideas and ideals as products of the mind, in comparison with the world as perceived through the senses. In art idealism is the tendency to represent things as aesthetic sensibility would have them rather than as they are. In ethics it implies a view of life in which the predominant forces are spiritual and the aim is perfection. In philosophy the term refers to efforts to account for all objects in nature and experience as representations of the mind and sometimes to assign to such representations a higher order of existence. It is opposed to materialism. Plato conceived a world in which eternal ideas constituted reality, of which the ordinary world of experience is a shadow. In modern times idealism has largely come to refer the source of ideas to man's consciousness, whereas in the earlier period ideas were assigned a reality outside and independent of man's existence. Nevertheless, modern idealism generally proposes suprahuman mental activity of some sort and ascribes independent reality to certain principles, such as creativity, a force for good, or an absolute truth. The subjective idealism of George Berkeley in the 18th cent. held that the apparently objective world has its existence in the consciousness of individuals. Immanuel Kant developed a critical or transcendental idealism in which the phenomenal world, constituted by the human understanding, stands opposed to a world of things-in-themselves. The post-Kantian German idealism of J. G. Fichte and Friedrich von Schelling, which culminated in the absolute or objective idealism of G. W. F. Hegel, began with a denial of the unknowable thing-in-itself, thereby enabling these philosophers to treat all reality as the creation of mind or spirit. Forms of post-Kantian idealism were developed in Germany by Arthur Schopenhauer and Hermann Lotze and in England by Samuel Coleridge; forms of post-Hegelian idealism were developed in England and France by T. H. Green, Victor Cousin, and C. B. Renouvier. More recent idealists include F. H. Bradley, Bernard Bosanquet, Josiah Royce, Benedetto Croce, and the neo-Kantians such as Ernst Cassirer and Hermann Cohen.

See J. H. Muirhead, The Platonic Tradition in Anglo-Saxon Philosophy (1931, repr. 1965); A. C. Ewing, ed., The Idealist Tradition (1957); G. A. Kelly, Idealism, Politics, and History (1969).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Idealism as a Philosophy
R. F. Alfred Hoernlé.
George H. Doran, 1927
The Vindication of Absolute Idealism
T. L. S. Sprigge.
Edinburgh University Press, 1983
Berkeley's Idealism: A Critical Examination
Georges Dicker.
Oxford University Press, 2011
The Innovations of Idealism
Rüdiger Bubner; Nicholas Walker.
Cambridge University Press, 2003
German Idealism: The Struggle against Subjectivism, 1781-1801
Frederick C. Beiser.
Harvard University Press, 2002
British Idealism and Social Explanation: A Study in Late Victorian Thought
Sandra M. Den Otter.
Clarendon Press, 1996
New England Transcendentalism and St. Louis Hegelianism: Phases in the History of American Idealism
Henry A. Pochmann.
Carl Schurz Memorial Foundation, 1948
Magical Realism and the Legacy of German Idealism
Warnes, Christopher.
The Modern Language Review, Vol. 101, No. 2, April 2006
Structural Idealism: A Theory of Social and Historical Explanation
Douglas Mann.
Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2002
Temporarily FREE! The Columbia History of Western Philosophy
Richard H. Popkin.
Columbia University Press, 1999
Heidegger and Kant: The Question of Idealism
Raffoul, Francois.
Philosophy Today, Vol. 40, No. 4, Winter 1996
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Principles of Human Knowledge and Three Dialogues
George Berkeley; Howard Robinson.
Oxford University Press, 1996
Problems from Kant
James Van Cleve.
Oxford University Press, 1999
Russell, Idealism, and the Emergence of Analytic Philosophy
Peter Hylton.
Clarendon Press, 1992
A History of American Philosophy
Herbert W. Schneider.
Columbia University Press, 1946
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 7 "Idealisms"
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