Deductive Logic

deduction

deduction, in logic, form of inference such that the conclusion must be true if the premises are true. For example, if we know that all men have two legs and that John is a man, it is then logical to deduce that John has two legs. Logicians contrast deduction with induction, in which the conclusion might be false even when the premises are true. Deduction has to do with necessity; induction has to do with probability. The famous Aristotelian syllogism is one species of deductive reasoning, which was greatly extended by the development of symbolic logic.

See R. J. Ackermann, Modern Deductive Logic (1971); P. J. Hurley A Concise Introduction to Logic (1985).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Deductive Logic
Warren Goldfarb.
Hackett, 2003
An Introduction to Deductive Logic
Hugues Leblanc.
John Wiley & Sons, 1955
FREE! Logic, Deductive and Inductive
John Grier Hibben.
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1905
Challenge and Response: Justification in Ethics
Carl Wellman.
Southern Illinois University Press, 1971
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 1 "Deduction"
Intermediate Logic
David Bostock.
Clarendon Press, 1997
Librarian’s tip: Includes discussion of deductive logic in multiple chapters
The Rationality of Induction
D. C. Stove.
Clarendon Press, 1986
Librarian’s tip: Chap. X "Is Deductive Logic Empirical?"
Reasoning, Necessity, and Logic: Developmental Perspectives
Willis F. Overton.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1990
Librarian’s tip: "'If' and Deductive Thinking" begins on p. 159
Natural Deduction: The Logical Basis of Axiom Systems
John M. Anderson; Henry W. Johnstone Jr.
Wadsworth Publishing, 1962
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