Johann Gottlieb Fichte

Johann Gottlieb Fichte (yō´hän gôt´lēp fĬkh´tə), 1762–1814, German philosopher. After studying theology at Jena and working as a tutor in Zürich and Leipzig, he became interested in Kantian philosophy. He received public recognition for his Versuch einer Kritik aller Offenbarung [critique of all revelation] (1792), which was at first attributed to Kant himself, who highly commended the work. As professor of philosophy at Jena (1793–99), Fichte produced a number of works, including the Wissenschaftslehre [science of knowledge] (1794). Charges of atheism forced him to leave Jena for Berlin where he restated his views in Die Bestimmung des Menschen (1800, tr. The Vocation of Man, rev. ed. 1956). His Reden an die deutsche Nation (1808, tr., Addresses to the German People, 1923) established him as a leader of liberal nationalism. After several brief professorships, he served (1810–12) as rector of the new Univ. of Berlin. Fichte's dialectic idealism attempted unification of the theoretical and practical aspects of cognition that had been set apart by Kant. He did this by rejecting the noumenal realm of Kant and by making the active indivisible ego the source of the structure of experience. From there his dialectical logic led to the postulation of a moral will of the universe, a God or absolute ego from which all eventually derives and which therefore unites all knowing. Fichte's philosophy had considerable influence in his day, but later he was remembered more as a patriot and liberal. Although he was in political disrepute in his own day and after the reaction of 1815, he became a hero not only to the revolutionaries of 1848 but also to the conservatives of 1871. His political theory had socialistic aspects that influenced Ferdinand Lassalle. His son, Immanuel Hermann von Fichte, 1797–1879, edited Fichte's works, wrote a biography of him, and also did original philosophical work.

See biography by H. E. Engelbrecht (1933, repr. 1968).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Fichte, Marx, and the German Philosophical Tradition
Tom Rockmore.
Southern Illinois University Press, 1980
Transformative Philosophy: A Study of Sankara, Fichte, and Heidegger
John A. Taber.
University of Hawaii Press, 1983
Fichte, Kant's Legacy and the Meaning of Modern Philosophy
Mandt, A. J.
The Review of Metaphysics, Vol. 50, No. 3, March 1997
On the Unity of Theoretical Subjectivity in Kant and Fichte
Reid, James D.
The Review of Metaphysics, Vol. 57, No. 2, December 2003
German Philosophy, 1760-1860: The Legacy of Idealism
Terry Pinkard.
Cambridge University Press, 2002
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 5 "The 1790's: Fichte"
Enlightenment, Revolution, and Romanticism: The Genesis of Modern German Political Thought, 1790-1800
Frederick C. Beiser.
Harvard University Press, 1992
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 3 "Philosophy and Politics in J. G. Fichte's 1794 Wissenschaftslehre"
The Age of German Idealism
Robert C. Solomon; Kathleen M. Higgins.
Routledge, 1993
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 5 "Fichte and Schilling: The Jena Period"
Studies in the History of Political Philosophy before and after Rousseau
C. E. Vaughan; A. G. Little.
Russell & Russell, vol.2, 1960
Librarian’s tip: Chap. III "Fichte"
The Political Thought of the German Romantics, 1793-1815
H. S. Reiss.
Blackwell, 1955
Librarian’s tip: "Fichte" begins on p. 11
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