Terrorism

terrorism, the threat or use of violence, often against the civilian population, to achieve political or social ends, to intimidate opponents, or to publicize grievances. The term dates from the Reign of Terror (1793–94) in the French Revolution but has taken on additional meaning in the 20th cent. Terrorism involves activities such as assassinations, bombings, random killings, and hijackings. Used for political, not military, purposes, and most typically by groups too weak to mount open assaults, it is a modern tool of the alienated, and its psychological impact on the public has increased because of extensive coverage by the media. Political terrorism also may be part of a government campaign to eliminate the opposition, as under Hitler, Mussolini, Stalin, and others, or may be part of a revolutionary effort to overthrow a regime. Terrorist attacks also are now a common tactic in guerrilla warfare. Governments find attacks by terrorist groups difficult to prevent; international agreements to tighten borders or return terrorists for trial may offer some deterrence.

Terrorism reaches back to ancient Greece and has occurred throughout history. Terrorism by radicals (of both the left and right) and by nationalists became widespread after World War II. Since the late 20th cent. acts of terrorism have been associated with the Italian Red Brigades, the Irish Republican Army, the Palestine Liberation Organization, Peru's Shining Path, Sri Lanka's Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, the Weathermen and some members of U.S. "militia" organizations, among many groups. Religiously inspired terrrorism has also occurred, such as that of extremist Christian opponents of abortion in the United States; of extremist Muslims associated with Hamas, Osama bin Laden's Al Qaeda, and other organizations; of extremist Sikhs in India; and of Japan's Aum Shinrikyo, who released nerve gas in Tokyo's subway system (1995).

In 1999 the UN Security Council unanimously called for better international cooperation in fighting terrorism and asked governments not to aid terrorists. The Sept. 11, 2001, attacks by Al Qaeda on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon—the most devastating terrorist attacks in history—prompted calls by U.S. political leaders for a world "war on terrorism." Although the U.S. effort to destroy Al Qaeda and overthrow the Afghani government that hosted it was initially successful, terrorism is not a movement but a tactic used by a wide variety of groups, some of which are regarded (and supported) as "freedom fighters" in various countries or by various peoples. So-called state-sponsored terrorism, in which governments provide support or protection to terrorist groups that carry out proxy attacks against other countries, also complicates international efforts to end terror attacks, but financial sanctions have been placed by many countries on organizations that directly or indirectly support terrorists. The 2001 bioterror attacks in which anthrax spores were mailed to various U.S. media and government offices may not be linked to the events of September 11, but they raised specter of biological and chemical terrorism and revealed the difficulty of dealing with such attacks.

See B. Hoffman, Inside Terrorism (1998); M. Carr, The Infernal Machine: A History of Terrorism (2007); S. Nathanson, Terrorism and the Ethics of War (2010); M. A. Miller, The Foundations of Modern Terrorism (2013).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2013, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Terrorism: A Very Short Introduction
Charles Townshend.
Oxford University Press, 2002
How Terrorism Is Wrong: Morality and Political Violence
Virginia Held.
Oxford University Press, 2008
The Faces of Terrorism: Social and Psychological Dimensions
Neil J. Smelser.
Princeton University Press, 2007
Islamic Radicalism and Global Jihad
Devin R. Springer; James L. Regens; David N. Edger.
Georgetown University Press, 2009
Blood That Cries out from the Earth: The Psychology of Religious Terrorism
James W. Jones.
Oxford University Press, 2008
Global Terrorism
James M. Lutz; Brenda J. Lutz.
Routledge, 2004
Terrorists and Terrorism in the Contemporary World
David J. Whittaker.
Routledge, 2004
Understanding Terrorism in America: From the Klan to Al Qaeda
Christopher Hewitt.
Routledge, 2003
Terrorists, Victims, and Society: Psychological Perspectives on Terrorism and Its Consequences
Andrew Silke.
Wiley, 2003
New Political Religions, Or, An Analysis of Modern Terrorism
Barry Cooper.
University of Missouri Press, 2004
Dictionary of Terrorism
John Richard Thackrah.
Routledge, 2004 (2nd edition)
Dying to Kill: The Allure of Suicide Terror
Mia Bloom.
Columbia University Press, 2005
Media, War, and Terrorism: Responses from the Middle East and Asia
Peter Van Der Veer; Shoma Munshi.
Routledge, 2004
The Psychology of Terrorism: Theoretical Understandings and Perspectives
Chris E. Stout.
Praeger, vol.3, 2002
The Psychology of Terrorism: Programs and Practices in Response and Prevention
Chris E. Stout.
Praeger, vol.4, 2002
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