Franklin Pierce

Franklin Pierce, 1804–69, 14th President of the United States (1853–57), b. Hillsboro, N.H., grad. Bowdoin College, 1824. Admitted to the bar in 1827, he entered politics as a Jacksonian Democrat, like his father, Benjamin Pierce, who was twice elected governor of New Hampshire (1827, 1829). He served in the New Hampshire general court (1829–33), being speaker in 1831 and 1832, and had an undistinguished career in the U.S. House of Representatives (1833–37) and in the U.S. Senate (1837–42). On resigning from the Senate, he achieved success as a lawyer in Concord, N.H., and continued to be important in state politics. A strong nationalist, he vigorously supported and then served in the Mexican War, becoming a brigadier general of volunteers.

In 1852 the Democratic party was split into hostile factions led by William L. Marcy, Stephen A. Douglas, James Buchanan, and Lewis Cass, none of whom could muster sufficient strength to secure the presidential nomination. Pierce, personally charming and politically unobjectionable to Southerners since he favored the Compromise of 1850, was made the "dark horse" candidate by his friends. He won the nomination (on the 49th ballot) and went on to defeat the Whig candidate, Gen. Winfield Scott, his commander in the Mexican War.

Pierce's desire to smooth over the slavery quarrel and unite all factions of the Democratic party was reflected in the composition of his cabinet, for which he chose such outstanding sectional representatives as Marcy, Jefferson Davis, and Caleb Cushing. A vigorous expansionist foreign policy was adopted, but it failed in most of its objectives. After the Black Warrior affair (1854), which brought the United States to the brink of war with Spain, Pierce authorized his European ministers, Pierre Soulé, John Y. Mason, and Buchanan, to confer on the means by which the United States might acquire Cuba. Their report, the so-called Ostend Manifesto, was leaked to the press and caused such an uproar that the administration was forced to disavow it. Troubled relations with Great Britain were not improved by the U.S. naval bombardment (1854) of San Juan del Norte, British protectorate in Nicaragua; the filibustering activities of William Walker further aggravated Central American affairs. Moves to annex Hawaii, acquire a naval base in Santo Domingo, and purchase Alaska ended fruitlessly. One achievement, the successful Japanese expedition of Commodore Matthew C. Perry, had been initiated in Millard Fillmore's administration.

On the domestic scene Pierce stood for development of the West (the Gadsden Purchase was made during his administration), but plans for a transcontinental railroad fell through. The Kansas-Nebraska Act enraged many Northerners and precipitated virtual civil war between the pro- and antislavery forces in Kansas. Pierce, by that time very unpopular, was passed over by the Democrats for renomination, and Buchanan succeeded him. Pierce's opposition to the Civil War made him more than ever disliked in the North, where he died in obscurity.

See biography by R. F. Nichols (rev. ed. 1958).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2013, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Franklin Pierce, Young Hickory of the Granite Hills
Roy Franklin Nichols.
University of Pennsylvania Press, 1931
The Federalist Years to the Civil War
Philip H. Burch Jr.
Holmes & Meier, vol.1, 1981
Librarian’s tip: "The Administration of Franklin Pierce" begins on p. 201
The Ongoing Civil War: New Versions of Old Stories
Herman Hattaway; Ethan S. Rafuse.
University of Missouri Press, 2004
Librarian’s tip: "Franklin Pierce and the Civil War" begins on p. 58
Inauguration of President Pierce: March 4th, 1853. (Months Past)
Cavendish, Richard.
History Today, Vol. 53, No. 3, March 2003
Frank and Nat. (Flashback: To Know Nothing of What Happened before You Were Born Is to Remain Ever a Child-Cicero)
Kauffman, Bill.
The American Enterprise, Vol. 12, No. 8, December 2001
Facts about the Presidents: A Compilation of Biographical and Historical Data
Joseph Nashan Kane.
H. W. Wilson, 1959
Librarian’s tip: "Franklin Pierce: 14th President" begins on p. 92
A Cultural Encyclopedia of the 1850s in America
Robert L. Gale.
Greenwood Press, 1993
Librarian’s tip: "Pierce, Franklin" begins on p. 302
Encyclopedia of American Parties, Campaigns, and Elections
William C. Binning; Larry E. Esterly; Paul A. Sracic.
Greenwood Press, 1999
Librarian’s tip: "Pierce, Franklin" begins on p. 311
The Unitary Executive during the Second Half-Century
Calabresi, Steven G.; Yoo, Christopher S.
Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, Vol. 26, No. 3, Summer 2003
The Making of the Ex-Presidents, 1797-1993: Six Recurrent Models
Belenky, Irina.
Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 29, No. 1, March 1999
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