TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority)

Tennessee Valley Authority

Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), independent U.S. government corporate agency, created in 1933 by act of Congress; it is responsible for the integrated development of the Tennessee River basin. The history of TVA began in the early 1920s, when Senator George William Norris sponsored a plan to have the government take over and operate Wilson Dam and other installations that had been built by the government for national defense purposes during World War I at Muscle Shoals, Alabama. However, legislation to this effect was vetoed in 1928 and in 1931 by Presidents Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover. The 1933 TVA Act, redrafted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, went far beyond the earlier proposals and launched the federal government into a vast scheme of regional planning and development—an undertaking that became the model for similar river projects.

The establishment of the TVA marked the first time that an agency was directed to address the total resource development needs of a major region. TVA was instructed to take on the problems presented by devastating floods, badly eroded lands, a deficient economy, and a steady outmigration—all in one unified development effort. The act provided for the integrated development of the whole Tennessee River basin, an area of about 41,000 sq mi (106,200 sq km) that covers parts of seven states. The TVA is governed by a three-person board of directors. The fact that its main offices are located in the region, rather than in Washington, D.C., allows the TVA to maintain a close working relationship with the people of the region.

Facets and Activities of the TVA

In 1998 the TVA generated more electricity than any other U.S. utility, supplying 8 million residents. The most noteworthy feature of TVA is the system of multipurpose dams and reservoirs that have contributed greatly to the economic life of the area. There are some 50 dams in the hydroelectric system with an installed capacity in excess of 6 million kW. To meet the growing demand for power over and above the hydroelectric capacity of the system, the TVA began in 1940 to construct steam-generating facilities. By the late 1990s, 62% of the TVA's installed capacity was provided by coal-burning steam plants.

Steadily mounting power demands encouraged TVA to add nuclear power plants in the early 1970s. Design and management flaws and a 1975 accident at Browns Ferry resulted in plant closures and construction delays, but by 1996 three facilties (Watts Bar, Sequoyah, and Browns Ferry) were open and operating.

Electric power from all sources is allocated with a view to promoting the widest possible use of electricity throughout the area—with local municipalities, state and federal agencies, and farmer cooperatives receiving priority over private utility companies and industries. The availability of low-cost electricity has attracted large numbers of businesses and industries to the area, and a 630-mi (1,014-km) navigation channel extending from the mouth of the Tennessee River to Knoxville, Tenn., has been responsible for an enormous increase in river traffic, chiefly in coal, construction material, grain, petroleum, chemicals, and forest products.

Other TVA activities, carried out in cooperation with local authorities, include land conservation; environmental research; tree planting; malaria control; the development of fish, wildlife, and mineral resources; social and educational programs; and the establishment of recreational facilities along the banks of its reservoirs, including the Land Between the Lakes, in W Kentucky and W Tennessee.

Financing the TVA

Throughout much of the history of the TVA, opponents of the authority have argued that it is too costly and that government should not compete with private enterprise. In 1959, Congress authorized the TVA to issue bonds and notes to be used in financing needed additions to power system capacity. The power system became self-financing and by the early 1990s had paid back more than $2.5 billion into the U.S. Treasury. Congressional funding of the TVA's nonpower programs was phased out in the late 1990s, leaving it totally self-supporting.

The TVA Today

By the 1960s many of the regional problems of underdevelopment had been overcome, per capita income had increased dramatically, and rapid outmigration had ended. However, the TVA continues to seek ways to make the largely rural area an attractive alternative to overcrowded cities. In the late 1960s and early 70s the TVA began to place greater emphasis on environmental protection as industrialization and rising living standards resulted in greater demands on the environment. In the conflict between economic and environmental objectives the TVA sought a suitable balance, particularly in its power program. Despite the TVA's environmental protection efforts, the agency has been criticized principally by environmental groups. Controversial issues have involved construction of the Tellico Dam and Reservoir on the Little Tennessee River, the nuclear power program, and the TVA's purchase of pollution credits from Wisconsin Power and Light in 1992.

Bibliography

See P. J. Hubbard, Origins of the TVA (1961, repr. 1968); J. Moore, ed., The Economic Impact of TVA (1967); N. Callahan, TVA: Bridge over Troubled Waters (1980); W. U. Chandler, Myth of TVA: Conservation and Development in the Tennessee Valley, 1933–1983 (1984).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2013, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

The Making of the TVA
Arthur E. Morgan; Donald Davidson; Thomas K. McCraw.
Prometheus Books, 1974
TVA and Black Americans: Planning for the Status Quo
Nancy L. Grant.
Temple University Press, 1990
Regulating Regional Power Systems
Clinton J. Andrews.
Quorum Books, 1995
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 23 "Tennessee Valley Authority Case Study" and Chap. 24 "Comment on the Tennessee Valley Authority Case"
Between State and Nation: Regional Organizations of the United States
Martha Derthick; Gary Bombardier.
Brookings Institutuion, 1974
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 2 "The Tennessee Valley Authority"
The Public's Business: The Politics and Practices of Government Corporations
Annmarie Hauck Walsh.
MIT Press, 1978
The Conservation Fight: From Theodore Roosevelt to the Tennessee Valley Authority
Judson King.
Public Affairs Press, 1959
Fighting Liberal: The Autobiography of George W. Norris
Arthur M. Schlesinger; George W. Norris; George W. Norris.
University of Nebraska Press, 1972
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 26 "TVA in Existence"
TVA and the Grass Roots: A Study in the Sociology of Formal Organization
Philip Selznick.
University of California Press, 1949
Architecture and Nature: Creating the American Landscape
Christine Macy; Sarah Bonnemaison.
Routledge, 2003
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 3 "Putting Nature to Work with the Tennessee Valley Authority, 1933"
Religion, Law, and the Land: Native Americans and the Judicial Interpretation of Sacred Land
Brian Edward Brown.
Greenwood Press, 1999
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 1 "Sequoyah v. Tennessee Valley Authority: The Tellico Dam and the Submersion of Cherokee Sacred Homeland"
Uncle Sam in the Pacific Northwest: Federal Management of Natural Resources in the Columbia River Valley
Charles McKinley.
University of California Press, 1952
Librarian’s tip: Chap. XV "The Tennessee Valley Authority as a Model: Its Job and Its Methods"
Regional Factors in National Planning and Development
U.S. National Resources Committee.
U. S. Government Printing Office, 1935
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