Autistic Spectrum Disorders

autism

autism (ô´tĬzəm), developmental disability resulting from a neurological disorder that affects the normal functioning of the brain. It is characterized by the abnormal development of communication skills, social skills, and reasoning. Males are affected four times as often as females. Children may appear generally normal until around the age of 24 to 30 months, although studies have identified signs of autism in children under a year of age.

Symptoms, which vary widely in severity, include impairment in social interaction, fixation on inanimate objects, inability to communicate normally, and resistance to changes in daily routine. Characteristic traits include lack of eye contact, repetition of words or phrases, unmotivated tantrums, inability to express needs verbally, and insensitivity to pain. Behaviors may change over time. Autistic children often have other disorders of brain function; about two thirds are mentally retarded; over one quarter develop seizures.

The cause of autism remains unclear, but a psychological one has been ruled out. Neurological studies indicate a primary brain dysfunction, perhaps related to abnormalities that appear to occur in the way the autistic child's brain develops. A genetic component is suggested by a pattern of autism in some families, and studies have suggested that a number of genes may be involved. Exposure in the womb to elevated levels of steroid hormones has been found to be associated with autism in boys in one study, but study compared the average levels of two groups of boys (one with, the without, autism) and individual levels in the two groups overlapped. The condition also appears to be more common in children born to older mothers or older fathers. Treatment in which autistic children are intensively and repetitively taught skills and behaviors from a young age appears to help some children with the disorder.

See T. Grandin, Emergence: Labeled Autistic (with M. M. Scariano, 1986, repr. 1996), Thinking in Pictures (1995), and The Autistic Brain (with R. Panek, 2013); L. Wing, ed., Aspects of Autism (1988). See also publications of the Autism Society of America.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Autism Spectrum Disorders: Identification, Education, and Treatment
Dianne Zager.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2005 (3rd edition)
Autism Spectrum Disorders
Eric Hollander.
Marcel Dekker, 2003
Voices from the Spectrum: Parents, Grandparents, Siblings, People with Autism, and Professionals Share Their Wisdom
Cindy N. Ariel; Robert A. Naseef.
Jessica Kingsley, 2006
Teaching Children with Autism and Related Spectrum Disorders: An Art and a Science
Christy L. Magnusen.
Jessica Kingsley, 2005
The Importance of Recognizing Autism Spectrum Disorders in Intellectual Disability
Hurley, Anne DesNoyers; Levitas, Andrew S.
Mental Health Aspects of Developmental Disabilities, Vol. 10, No. 4, October-December 2007
Meeting the Needs of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the Early Years
Jordan, Rita.
Australian Journal of Early Childhood, Vol. 29, No. 3, September 2004
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Families with Children Who Have Autism Spectrum Disorders: Stress and Support
Meadan, Hedda; Halle, James W.; Ebata, Aaron T.
Exceptional Children, Vol. 77, No. 1, Fall 2010
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Issues and Trends in Treatment of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. (Autism)
Weaver, Betsy; Hersey, Miranda.
The Exceptional Parent, Vol. 32, No. 4, April 2002
Developmental Language Disorders: From Phenotypes to Etiologies
Mabel L. Rice; Steven F. Warren.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 2 "Trajectory of Language Development in Autistic Spectrum Disorders"
The Development of Autism: Perspectives from Theory and Research
Jacob A. Burack; Tony Charman; Nurit Yirmiya; Philip R. Zelazo.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2001
Autism: Neural Basis and Treatment Possibilities
Gregory Bock; Jamie Goode.
Wiley, 2003
Asperger's Syndrome: Intervening in Schools, Clinics, and Communities
Linda J. Baker; Lawrence A. Welkowitz.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2005
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