Classical Conditioning (Pavlovian Conditioning)

learning

learning, in psychology, the process by which a relatively lasting change in potential behavior occurs as a result of practice or experience. Learning is distinguished from behavioral changes arising from such processes as maturation and illness, but does apply to motor skills, such as driving a car, to intellectual skills, such as reading, and to attitudes and values, such as prejudice. There is evidence that neurotic symptoms and patterns of mental illness are also learned behavior. Learning occurs throughout life in animals, and learned behavior accounts for a large proportion of all behavior in the higher animals, especially in humans.

Models of Learning

The scientific investigation of the learning process was begun at the end of the 19th cent. by Ivan Pavlov in Russia and Edward Thorndike in the United States. Three models are currently widely used to explain changes in learned behavior; two emphasize the establishment of relations between stimuli and responses, and the third emphasizes the establishment of cognitive structures. Albert Bandura maintained (1977) that learning occurs through observation of others, or models; it has been suggested that this type of learning occurs when children are exposed to violence in the media.

Classical Conditioning

The first model, classical conditioning, was initially identified by Pavlov in the salivation reflex of dogs. Salivation is an innate reflex, or unconditioned response, to the presentation of food, an unconditioned stimulus. Pavlov showed that dogs could be conditioned to salivate merely to the sound of a buzzer (a conditioned stimulus), after it was sounded a number of times in conjunction with the presentation of food. Learning is said to occur because salivation has been conditioned to a new stimulus that did not elicit it initially. The pairing of food with the buzzer acts to reinforce the buzzer as the prominent stimulus.

Operant Conditioning

A second type of learning, known as operant conditioning, was developed around the same time as Pavlov's theory by Thorndike, and later expanded upon by B. F. Skinner. Here, learning takes place as the individual acts upon the environment. Whereas classical conditioning involves innate reflexes, operant conditioning requires voluntary behavior. Thorndike showed that an intermittent reward is essential to reinforce learning, while discontinuing the use of reinforcement tends to extinguish the learned behavior. The famous Skinner box demonstrated operant conditioning by placing a rat in a box in which the pressing of a small bar produces food. Skinner showed that the rat eventually learns to press the bar regularly to obtain food. Besides reinforcement, punishment produces avoidance behavior, which appears to weaken learning but not curtail it. In both types of conditioning, stimulus generalization occurs; i.e., the conditioned response may be elicited by stimuli similar to the original conditioned stimulus but not used in the original training. Stimulus generalization has enormous practical importance, because it allows for the application of learned behaviors across different contexts. Behavior modification is a type of treatment resulting from these stimulus/response models of learning. It operates under the assumption that if behavior can be learned, it can also be unlearned (see behavior therapy).

Cognitive Learning

A third approach to learning is known as cognitive learning. Wolfgang Köhler showed that a protracted process of trial-and-error may be replaced by a sudden understanding that grasps the interrelationships of a problem. This process, called insight, is more akin to piecing together a puzzle than responding to a stimulus. Edward Tolman (1930) found that unrewarded rats learned the layout of a maze, yet this was not apparent until they were later rewarded with food. Tolman called this latent learning, and it has been suggested that the rats developed cognitive maps of the maze that they were able to apply immediately when a reward was offered.

Bibliography

See T. Tighe, Modern Learning Theory (1982); B. Schwartz, Psychology of Learning and Behavior (2d ed. 1983).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Classical Conditioning
Isidore Gormezano; William F. Prokasy; Richard F. Thompson.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1987 (3rd edition)
The Symbolic Foundations of Conditioned Behavior
Charles R. Gallistel; John Gibbon.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002
Theoretical Models of Counseling and Psychotherapy
Kevin A. Fall; Janice Miner Holder; Andre Marquis.
Brunner-Routledge, 2004
Librarian’s tip: "Classical Conditioning" begins on p. 280
Reinforcement Learning, Conditioning, and the Brain: Successes and Challenges
Maia, Tiago V.
Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, Vol. 9, No. 4, December 2009
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Evolution of an Elemental Theory of Pavlovian Conditioning
Wagner, Allan R.
Learning & Behavior, Vol. 36, No. 3, August 2008
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Verbal Understanding and Pavlovian Processes
Tonneau, Francois.
The Behavior Analyst Today, Vol. 5, No. 2, Spring 2004
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Contemporary Learning Theories: Pavlovian Conditioning and the Status of Traditional Learning Theory
Stephen B. Klein; Robert R. Mowrer.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1989
Persuasion in Advertising
John O'Shanghnessy; Nicholas Jackson O'Shaughnessy.
Routledge, 2004
Librarian’s tip: "Pavlovian Conditioning" begins on p. 100
Approaches to Psychology
William E. Glassman; Marilyn Hadad.
Open University Press, 2004
Librarian’s tip: "Classical Conditioning" begins on p. 106
Determinants of Animal Behaviour
Jo-Anne Cartwright.
Routledge, 2002
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 3 "Classical and Operant Conditioning"
Handbook of Contemporary Learning Theories
Robert R. Mowrer; Stephen B. Klein.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2001
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 2 "A Componential Theory of Pavlovian Conditioning"
Introduction to Neural and Cognitive Modeling
Daniel S. Levine.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000 (2nd edition)
Librarian’s tip: "Network Models of Classical Conditioning" begins on p. 157
Fifty Key Thinkers in Psychology
Noel Sheehy.
Routledge, 2004
Librarian’s tip: "Pavlov, Ivan Petrovich" begins on p. 182
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