Bipolar Disorder (Manic Depression)

bipolar disorder

bipolar disorder, formerly manic-depressive disorder or manic-depression, severe mental disorder involving manic episodes that are usually accompanied by episodes of depression. The term "manic-depression" was introduced by the German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin in 1896. The manic phase of the disorder is characterized by an abnormally elevated or irritable mood, grandiosity, sleeplessness, extravagance, and a tendency toward irrational judgment. During the depressed phase, the person tends to appear lethargic and withdrawn, shows a lack of concentration, and expresses feelings of worthlessness, self-blame, and guilt. This dual character of the disorder has given it the name bipolar disorder, in contrast to the unipolar depression symptomatic of the majority of mood disorders. The symptoms range in intensity and pattern and may not be recognized at first. Individuals suffering from bipolar disorder may have long periods in their lives without episodes of mania or depression, but manic-depressives have the highest suicide rate of any group with a psychological disorder.

Incidence

Estimates suggest that about 2 million Americans suffer from bipolar disorders. Symptoms usually appear in adolescence or early adulthood and continue throughout life. The disorder occurs in males and females equally and is found more frequently in close relatives of people already known to have it.. It has had notable incidence among creative individuals, affecting such artists as Hector Berlioz, Gustav Mahler, Ernest Hemingway, and Virginia Woolf.

Treatment

Therapy includes lithium (to control mania and stabilize mood swings), anticonvulsant drugs such as valproate and carbamazepine, and antidepressants. Electroconvulsive therapy has been useful in cases where other treatments have had little success. Psychotherapy can provide support to the patient and the family.

Bibliography

See F. K. Goodwin and K. R. Jamison, Manic-Depressive Illness (1990); D. Healy, Mania: A Short History of Bipolar Disorder (2011); publications of the National Institute of Mental Health.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Living with Bipolar: A Guide to Understanding and Managing the Disorder
Lesley Berk; Michael Berk; David Castle; Sue Lauder.
Allen & Unwin, 2008
Psychological Treatment of Bipolar Disorder
Sheri L. Johnson; Robert L. Leahy.
Guilford Press, 2004
Cognitive Therapy for Bipolar Disorder: A Therapist's Guide to Concepts, Methods, and Practice
Dominic H. Lam; Steven H. Jones; Peter Hayward.
Wiley, 2010 (2nd edition)
Treating Bipolar Disorder: A Clinician's Guide to Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy
Ellen Frank.
Guilford Press, 2005
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Bipolar Disorder
Monica Ramirez Basco; A. John Rush.
Guilford Press, 2005
Bipolar Disorder in Childhood and Early Adolescence
Barbara Geller; Melissa P. Delbello.
Guilford Press, 2003
Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Underdiagnosed or Fiction?
Sahling, Daniel L.
Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol. 11, No. 3, October 1, 2009
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Raising a Moody Child: How to Cope with Depression and Bipolar Disorder
Mary A. Fristad; Jill S. Goldberg Arnold.
Guilford Press, 2004
Bipolar Disorder in Adolescence: Diagnosis and Treatment. (Practice)
Wilkinson, Greta Buyck; Taylor, Priscilla; Holt, Jan R.
Journal of Mental Health Counseling, Vol. 24, No. 4, October 2002
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
How Well Do Psychosocial Interventions Work in Bipolar Disorder?
Zaretsky, Ari E.; Rizvi, Sakina; Parikh, Sagar V.
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 52, No. 1, January 2007
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
A Short Review on the Diagnostic Issues of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders in Clinically Depressed Patients-Bipolar II Disorder
Mak, A. D. P.
Hong Kong Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 17, No. 4, December 2007
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Psychological Behaviorism Theory of Bipolar Disorder
Riedel, Helmut P. R.; Heiby, Elaine M.; Kopetskie, Stephen.
The Psychological Record, Vol. 51, No. 4, Fall 2001
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Bipolar Disorder and Substance Abuse: Overcome the Challenges of 'Dual Diagnosis' Patients
Tolliver, Bryan K.
Current Psychiatry, Vol. 9, No. 8, August 2010
Antidepressants in Bipolar Disorder 7 Myths and Realities
Goldberg, Joseph F.
Current Psychiatry, Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2010
Dealing with Depression: A Commonsense Guide to Mood Disorders
Gordon Parker; David Straton; Kay Wilhelm; Philip Mitchell; Marie-Paule Austin; Kerrie Eyers; Dusan Hadzi-Paviovic; Gin Malhi; Sue Grdovic.
Allen & Unwin, 2004 (2nd edition)
Librarianā€™s tip: Chap. 5 "Unipolar and Bipolar Disorder" and Chap. 6 "General Features of Depressive and Bipolar Disorders: The Experience"
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