Analytical Psychology

Analytical Psychology originated with the work of Carl Gustav Jung, a Swiss psychiatrist (1875-1961). Jung coined the term "analytical psychology." It is often referred to as Jungian psychology.

The history of Analytical Psychology is closely interwoven with Jung's biographical history. He was born, in Switzerland, from a Protestant lineage, with his mother having mediumistic experiences. Jung was known to have powerful dreams from an early age. He attended medical school in Basel, graduating in 1900. Jung's background was an intellectual one, and he studied philosophy intently.

At the end of World War I, Jung entered a period he classified as a "confrontation with the unconscious." This formed the basis of his development of a new type of psychology. In his Psychology of the Unconscious, written during 1912 to 1913, he introduced the term "analytical psychology." This work later became known as Symbols of Transformation. Further books on the subject include Two Essays, comprising New Paths in Psychology (1912), later known as The Psychology of the Unconscious Processes (1917), and The Structure of the Unconscious (1917), developing into The Relationship between the Ego and the Unconscious (1928).

Jung's Two Essays on Analytical Psychology elucidate his basic concepts, such as the distinction between the personal and collective unconscious, and its archetypal imagery. He discusses the process during which personal analysis reaches a meeting point with archetypal imagery, and how interpretation occurs on a subjective level. Jung explains that "every interpretation that equates the dream images with real objects" is an interpretation on the objective level. Objective or analytical interpretation refers to the breaking down of the dream components into complexes of memory, relating to external situations. In contrast, he describes how the interpretation of dreams and all the "actors" brings the interpretation to the subjective level of the person (dreamer). Following this, the analyst applies techniques of "amplification" and "active imagination."

Dreams and their themes is a significant aspect of Jung's analytical psychology, as is an understanding of the personal and collective unconscious. Transference, counter-transference (the dialectical processes between analyst and patient) and the manifestation of the individuation process are part of the analysis process. He writes about this in Psychology of the Transference, and further in his Collected Works. Jung states that it is inevitable that a doctor would become influenced by his patient, sometimes even being "taken over" by the patient's sufferings.

In 1945 Jung produced works on religion and alchemy. The training of analytical psychologists began following the end of World War II. Jung's methods of dream analysis and the use of active imagination appeared clear; however, the requirement to have considerable knowledge of myth, legend and religious practices, as a prerequisite for amplification, was more challenging for the trainees.

Sigmund Freud, the proponent of psychoanalysis, and Carl Gustav Jung, the founder of analytical psychology, found their own ways forward. Although there was an initial interconnectedness historically in terms of depth psychology and psychoanalysis, there was also considerable divergence. Freud pursued theories of the unconscious emerging from a biological and neurophysiological background, whereas Jung's influences derived from philosophy. Philosophies of Leibniz, Kant, Schopenhauer and Nietzsche formed a crucial role in defining his ideas on the unconscious. He was particularly interested in their studies on "unconscious perceptions," "dark representations," "tendency of the unconscious material to flow into quite definite molds" and ideas emerging from Thus Spake Zarathustra, respectively.

The first large-scale historical account of Jung and analytical psychology appears in Sonu Shamdasani's Jung and the Making of Modern Psychology: The Dream of a Science. Core concepts and practices of Jungian psychology and the derivations of these ideas are revealed, pertaining to cognitive science, neuroscience, attachment theory, psychoanalysis and complexity theory.

Jung's comprehensive model of the human psyche is framed within the psychotherapeutic approach of analytical psychology, and is supported with a theoretical body of knowledge. The style of analysis is geared toward improving mental health, and enabling the "maturation of the personality," within an understanding of the social and cultural context.

Modern-day analytical psychologists refer to themselves in a variety of ways. They may be called Jungian analysts, analytical psychologists or Jungian psychologists.

Analytical psychology has had a continued presence in Switzerland since Jung's introduction and contribution to the field in the 1920s. It has developed in different ways, but with interest in countries such as the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy and Israel. Toward the latter part of the 20th century Jung's psychology spread worldwide, reaching Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, South Korea, Japan, South Africa, Austria and Scandinavia. The Baltic countries, the Czech Republic and Hungary also have an interest in Jung's analytical psychology.

The International Association for Analytical Psychology (IAAP) was founded by Jung at the time of his 80th birthday in 1955. It is still the accrediting body for all Jungian analysts. IAAP produces the Journal of Analytical Psychology.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Analytical Psychology
Joseph Cambray; Linda Carter.
Brunner-Routledge, 2004
Cult Fictions: C.G. Jung and the Founding of Analytical Psychology
Sonu Shamdasani.
Routledge, 1998
Contributions to Analytical Psychology
C. G. Jung; H. G. Baynes; Cary F. Baynes.
Harcourt Brace and Company, 1928
An Introduction to Meaning and Purpose in Analytical Psychology
Dale Mathers.
Routledge, 2001
Pathways into the Jungian World: Phenomenology and Analytical Psychology
Roger Brooke.
Routledge, 2000
Controversies in Analytical Psychology
Robert Withers.
Brunner-Routledge, 2002
Post-Jungians Today: Key Papers in Contemporary Analytical Psychology
Ann Casement.
Routledge, 1998
The Birth of Analytical Psychology from the Spirit of Weimar Classicism
Bishop, Paul.
Journal of European Studies, Vol. 29, No. 4, December 1999
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Abstracts of the Collected Works of C.G. Jung
Carrie Lee Rothgeb; Siegfried M. Clemens.
Karnac Books, 1992
Librarian’s tip: Vol. 7: "Two Essays on Analytical Psychology"
An Introduction to Theories of Personality
Robert B. Ewen.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998 (5th edition)
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 3 "Carl Gustav Jung: Analytical Psychology"
The Foundations of Psychiatry
Silvano Arieti.
Basic Books, 1974 (2nd edition)
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 38 "The Adlerian and Jungian Schools"
The Discovery of the Unconscious: The History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry
Henri F. Ellenberger.
Basic Books, 1970
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 9 "Carl Gustav Jung and Analytical Psychology"
Handbook of Child Guidance
Ernest Harms.
Child Care Publications, 1947
Librarian’s tip: "Childhood Problems as Seen From the Analytical Psychology Carl Gustav Jung's" p. 723
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