Ivan Pavlov

Pavlov, Ivan Petrovich

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (ēvän´ pētrô´vĬch päv´ləf), 1849–1936, Russian physiologist and experimental psychologist. He was professor at the military medical academy and director of the physiology department at the Institute for Experimental Medicine, St. Petersburg, from 1890. Pavlov was a skillful ambidextrous surgeon; using dogs as experimental animals, he established fistulas from various parts of the digestive tract by which he obtained secretions of the salivary glands, pancreas, and liver without disturbing the nerve and blood supply. For his work on the physiology of the digestive glands he received the 1904 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Using the same technique to create an artificial exterior pouch of the stomach, he experimented on nervous stimulation of gastric secretions and thus discovered the conditioned reflex (see behaviorism), which has had widespread influence in neurology and psychology. He also demonstrated that specific areas in the cerebral cortex are concerned with specific reflexes and based on these findings a mechanistic theory of human behavior that found political favor; in 1935 the government built a laboratory for him. His chief work was Conditioned Reflexes (1926, tr. 1927).

See biography by B. P. Babkin (1949); studies by E. Strauss (1963), H. Cuny (tr. 1965), and I. P. Frolov (tr. 1937, repr. 1970).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Portraits of Pioneers in Psychology
Gregory A. Kimble; Michael Wertheimer; Charlotte White.
American Psychological Association, 1991
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 3 "The Spirit of Ivan Petrovich Pavlov"
Contemporary Learning Theories: Pavlovian Conditioning and the Status of Traditional Learning Theory
Stephen B. Klein; Robert R. Mowrer.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1989
Topics in the History of Psychology
Gregory A. Kimble; Kurt Schlesinger.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, vol.1, 1985
Librarian’s tip: "Ivan Petrovich Pavlov and Classical Conditioning" begins on p. 24
Inhibition and Choice: A Neurobehavioral Approach to Problems of Plasticity in Behavior
Solomon Diamond; Richard S. Balvin; Florence Rand Diamond.
Harper & Row, 1963
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 9 "Pavlov" and Chap. 10 "Rivals and Followers of Pavlov"
Foundations of Conditioning and Learning
Gregory A. Kimble.
Appleton Century Crofts, 1967
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 2 "Pavlov and the Experimental Study of Conditional Reflexes"
Brain, Mind, and Behavior: A New Perspective on Human Nature
David L. Robinson.
Praeger Publishers, 1996
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 2 "Pavlov's Study of Brain-Behavior Relationships" and Chap. 3 "Theoretical Integration of Pavlov's Findings"
Psychologies of 1930
Carl Murchison.
Clark University Press, 1930
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 11 "A Brief Outline of the Higher Nervous Activity" by I. P. Pavlov
Some Views on Soviet Psychology
Raymond A. Bauer.
American Psychological Association, 1962
Librarian’s tip: "Pavlov's Theories" begins on p. 9
Ivan Pavlov: Exploring the Animal Machine
Daniel Todes.
Oxford University Press, 2000
Contemporary Schools of Psychology
Robert S. Woodworth.
Ronald Press, 1948 (Revised edition)
Librarian’s tip: "The Pavlovian Conditioned Response" begins on p. 56
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