Tantric Buddhism

Tantra

Tantra (tŭn´trə), in both Hinduism and Buddhism, esoteric tradition of ritual and yoga known for elaborate use of mantra, or symbolic speech, and mandala, or symbolic diagrams; the importance of female deities, or Shakti; cremation-ground practices such as meditation on corpses; and, more so in Hindu than in Buddhist tantra, the ritual use of wine, meat, and sexual intercourse. Tantric practices use both ritual and meditation to unify the devotee with the chosen deity. In Hindu Tantra, practice is graded into three types, corresponding to three classes of devotees: the animal, i.e., those in whom the guna, or quality, of tamas (darkness) predominates; the heroic, those in whom the guna of rajas (activity) predominates; and the divine, those in whom sattva (goodness) predominates (see Hindu philosophy). The practice of the heroic devotee entails actual use of the five elements, called the five m's: fish (matsya), meat (mamsa), wine (madya), aphrodisiac cereals (mudra), and sexual intercourse (maithuna). The animal devotee, not yet ready for the heroic practice, performs the rituals with material symbols; for the divine devotee the rituals are purely internal and symbolic. The object of the rituals, attainable only by the divine devotee, is to awaken kundalini energy, which is identified with Shakti, and merge with the Godhead. In Buddhist Tantra, or Vajrayana, in contrast to the Hindu, the female principle of "wisdom" (prajna) is seen as static, whereas the male, or "means" (upaya), is active. In Buddhism, rituals that appear to break basic moral precepts have for the most part been dropped, but the complex meditation practices have been retained.

See Y. Hakeda, Kukai (1972); A. Wayman, The Buddhist Tantras (1973); A. Bharati, The Tantric Tradition (1975); F. D. Lessing and A. Wayman, Introduction to the Buddhist Tantric Systems (2d ed. 1980); T. Goudriaan and S. Gupta, Hindu Tantric and Shakta Literature (1981); D. Brooks, The Secret of the Three Cities (1990).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement
Ronald M. Davidson.
Columbia University Press, 2002
Tibetan Yoga and Secret Doctrines: Or, Seven Books of Wisdom of the Great Path, According to the Late Lama Kazi Dawa-Samdup's English Rendering
W. Y. Evans-Wentz; Chen-Chi Chang.
Oxford University Press, 2000
Buddhist Spirituality: Indian, Southeast Asian, Tibetan, and Early Chinese
Takeuchi Yoshinori; Jan Bragt Van.
Crossroad Publishing, 1993
Librarian’s tip: "Tibetan Tantric Buddhism" begins on p. 230, "Tantric Buddhism in China" begins on p. 397
The Path of the Buddha: Buddhism Interpreted by Buddhists
Kenneth W. Morgan.
Ronald Press, 1956
Librarian’s tip: "Esoteric Buddhism" begins on p. 176
Chinese Religions
Julia Ching.
MacMillan, 1993
Librarian’s tip: "Tantric Buddhism: The Mongolian-Tibetan Religion" begins on p. 144
Vajra Brother, Vajra Sister: Renunciation, Individualism and the Household in Tibetan Buddhist Monasticism
Mills, Martin A.
Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, Vol. 6, No. 1, March 2000
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
The Tibetan Book of the Great Liberation: Or, the Method of Realizing Nirvana through Knowing the Mind
W. Y. Evans-Wentz.
Oxford University Press, 2000
Librarian’s tip: Chap. X "Tantric Buddhism" begins on p.58
Buddhist Thought: A Complete Introduction to the Indian Tradition
Paul Williams; Anthony Tribe.
Routledge, 2000
The Inner Kalacakratantra: A Buddhist Tantric View of the Individual
Vesna A. Wallace.
Oxford University Press, 2001
Tantra: Sex, Secrecy Politics, and Power in the Study of Religion
Hugh B. Urban.
University of California Press, 2003
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