Chu Hsi

Chu Hsi (jōō shē), 1130–1200, Chinese philosopher of Neo-Confucianism. While borrowing heavily from Buddhism, his new metaphysics reinvigorated Confucianism. According to Chu Hsi, the normative principle of human nature is pure and good. Expressed in concrete form human nature is less than perfect, but it can be refined through self-cultivation based on study of the classics. His thought was orthodox during the Yüan, Ming, and Ch'ing dynasties. For 600 years students memorized his classical commentaries until the Chinese examination system was abolished in 1905.

See studies by W.-T. Chan (1987, 1989).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2013, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

The Religious Thought of Chu Hsi
Julia Ching.
Oxford University Press, 2000
Chu Hsi: New Studies
Wing-Tsit Chan.
University of Hawaii Press, 1989
Chu Hsi and Neo-Confucianism
Wing-Tsit Chan.
University of Hawaii Press, 1986
Confucian Discourse and Chu Hsi's Ascendancy
Hoyt Cleveland Tillman.
University of Hawaii Press, 1992
Chu Hsi and His Masters: An Introduction to Chu Hsi and the Sung School of Chinese Philosophy
J. Percy Bruce.
Probsthain, 1923
A Comparative History of World Philosophy: From the Upanishads to Kant
Ben-Ami Scharfstein.
State University of New York Press, 1998
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 9 "Religio-Philosophical Synthesis: Udayana, Chu Hsi, Avicenna, Maimonides, Aquinas"
Cosmology, Ontology, and Human Efficacy: Essays in Chinese Thought
Richard J. Smith; D. W. Y. Kwok.
University of Hawaii Press, 1993
Librarian’s tip: "Chu Hsi and Truncated Transcendence" begins on p. 15
Transformations of the Confucian Way
John H. Berthrong.
Westview Press, 1998
Librarian’s tip: "Chu Hsi: The Grand Southern Sung Synthesis" begins on p. 108
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