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Shinto

Shinto (shĬn´tō), ancient native religion of Japan still practiced in a form modified by the influence of Buddhism and Confucianism. In its present form Shinto is characterized less by religious doctrine or belief than by the observance of popular festivals and traditional ceremonies and customs, many involving pilgrimages to shrines. Shinto, a term created to distinguish the indigenous religion from Buddhism, is the equivalent of the Japanese kami-no-michi, "the way of the gods" or "the way of those above." The word kami, meaning "above" or "superior," is the name used to designate a great host of supernatural beings or deities.

History and Development

Shinto cannot be traced to its beginnings, because until the 5th cent. (when Chinese writing was introduced into Japan) the myths and rituals were transmitted orally. The written record of the ancient beliefs and customs first appeared in the Kojiki [records of ancient matters], prepared under imperial order and completed in AD 712. From those first Japanese accounts of the religion of times then already far past, it can be seen that a worship of the forces and forms of nature had grown into a certain stage of polytheism in which spiritual conceptions had only a small place. Nor was there any clear realization of a personal character in the beings held to be divine, and there were practically no images of the deities.

There was no one deity supreme over all, but some gods were raised to higher ranks, and the one who held the most exalted position was the sun goddess, known as the Ruler of Heaven. The emperors of Japan are said to be descended from the sun goddess Amaterasu-o-mi-kami, in unbroken line beginning with the first, Jimmu, who ascended his throne in 660 BC Thus the emperor was looked upon as divine, even while living; by divine right he was the chief priest, and as such he presided over ceremonies of foremost importance. Aside from this his religious responsibilities were delegated to others.

A Shinto shrine, unaffected by other religious influences, is a simple unpainted wooden building, having some object within it that is believed to be the dwelling place of the kami. After Buddhism entered Japan in the 6th cent. AD, it had some influence on Shinto. In many shrines Buddhist priests serve, and worship under their direction is more elaborate than pure Shinto.

Beginning in the 17th cent. a vigorous effort was made to revive the old ways and ideas. After the Meiji restoration in 1868, the ancient department of Shinto rites was reestablished, giving Shinto much of its structure and identity as a religion. In 1882 all Shinto organizations were divided into two groups, state shrines (supervised and partially supported by the government) and sectarian churches. The ancient mythology was used to glorify the emperor and the state, and state Shinto became a powerful instrument in the hands of the militarists, who used it to glorify their policy of aggression.

Modern Shinto

Japan's defeat in World War II brought about the disestablishment of state Shinto. In 1946 in a New Year's rescript, Emperor Hirohito destroyed its chief foundation by disavowing his divinity; in the same year Gen. Douglas MacArthur forbade the use of public funds to support Shinto. In present-day Shinto there is no dogmatic system and no formulated code of morals. Shinto practices can be found abroad wherever large Japanese communities exist, as in the United States and South America. Some of the newer sects stress world peace and brotherhood as part of their philosophy.

Bibliography

See W. G. Aston, Shinto (1905, repr. 1968); D. C. Holtom, Modern Japan and Shinto Nationalism (rev. ed. 1947, repr. 1963); A. Akiyama, Shinto and Its Architecture (2d ed. 1956); S. Ono, Shinto: The Kami Way (1962); F. H. Ross, Shinto (1965); J. Herbert, Shinto (1966); S. D. Picken, Shinto: Japan's Spiritual Roots (1980).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2013, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

A Year in the Life of a Shinto Shrine
John K. Nelson.
University of Washington Press, 1997
FREE! The Development of Religion in Japan
George William Knox.
G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1907
Librarian’s tip: Lecture I "Primitive Beliefs and Rites: Natural Religion" and Lecture II "Shinto, the Way of the Gods: Natural Religion"
History of Japanese Religion: With Special Reference to the Social and Moral Life of the Nation
Masaharu Anesaki.
Kegan, Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1930
Librarian’s tip: Book I "The Shinto Religion and the Communal System Early Stages and Survival"
Sanctity and Sanction in Communal Ritual: A Reconsideration of Shinto Festival Processions
Schnell, Scott.
Ethnology, Vol. 36, No. 1, Winter 1997
Kaempfer's Japan: Tokugawa Culture Observed
Engelbert Kaempfer; Beatrice M. Bodart-Bailey; Beatrice M. Bodart-Bailey.
University of Hawaii Press, 1999
Librarian’s tip: Includes discussion of Shinto in Book3
What World Religions Teach
E. G. Parrinder.
George G. Harrap, 1963
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 10 "Shinto: Nature Religion"
Moral Development Theories-- Secular and Religious: A Comparative Study
R. Murray Thomas.
Greenwood Press, 1997
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 12 "Confucianism and Shinto"
Living Religions and Modern Thought
Alban G. Widgery.
Round Table Press, 1936
Librarian’s tip: Chap. V "Confucianism and Shinto"
Japanese Religion and Society: Paradigms of Structure and Change
Winston Davis.
State University of New York Press, 1992
Librarian’s tip: Chap. I "Japanese Religious Affiliations: Motives and Obligations"
The Ideology of Religious Studies
Timothy Fitzgerald.
Oxford University Press, 2000
Librarian’s tip: Part III "Religion and Japan"
Studies in Japanese Folklore
Richard M. Dorson; Toichi Mabuchi; Tokihiko Oto.
Indiana University Press, 1963
Librarian’s tip: Part Five "Worshipers"
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