Grace in Christianity

grace (in Christian theology)

grace, in Christian theology, the free favor of God toward humans, which is necessary for their salvation. A distinction is made between natural grace (e.g., the gift of life) and supernatural grace, by which God makes a person (born sinful because of original sin) capable of enjoying eternal life. In general, the term grace is restricted to supernatural grace, usually considered as the keystone of the whole Christian theological system.

Supernatural grace is usually defined as being actual or sanctifying. Actual grace turns the soul to God; sanctifying grace confirms and perpetuates the ends of this conversion and makes the soul habitually good. Most theologies (except in Calvinism), wishing to maintain humanity's freedom in addition to God's complete freedom in granting grace, distinguish prevenient grace, which frees a person and awakens him or her to God's call, from cooperating grace, by which God assists to salvation the free person who seeks it.

When God seems to confer on a person such actual grace that his or her conversion appears inevitable, the grace is said to be efficacious. The apparent difficulty of claiming that grace may be efficacious while a person is free was explained by St. Thomas Aquinas on the ground that it was a peculiar nature of this grace granted to some people that it should be ineluctable; it was this doctrine that Luis Molina and the Molinists disputed. Differing in effect from efficacious grace is merely sufficient grace, which, while sufficient to conversion, may be rejected by a person at will. Calvinism rejects merely sufficient grace, holding instead that grace is irresistible.

In every Christian theology God is considered to grant grace quite freely, since its gift is far greater than any person can merit. As to which persons are offered this grace, there is great difference. The generality hold that it is offered to people who place no obstacle in the way of salvation rather than to those who neglect what ways to grace they have been given; the Jansenists (see Jansen, Cornelis), however, believed that grace was not given outside the church, and the Calvinists hold that it is offered only to those predestined to election.

Sanctifying grace may be said to succeed justification as actual grace precedes it. The operation of sanctifying grace brings holiness to the individual soul. The indwelling of God in the soul and the soul's actual participation in God's nature (in an indefinable manner) are the perfections of sanctifying grace. As to the means, there is a serious cleavage in Christianity, notably in regard to sacramental grace. According to Roman Catholics and Orthodox, the grace accompanying a sacrament is ex opere operato, i.e., by God's ordinance the sacrament actually confers grace, the good disposition of the minister being unimportant and that of the recipient being not always a condition; Protestants hold that the sacraments are ex opere operantis, i.e., the faith of the recipient is all-important, and the sacrament is the sign, not the source of grace.

Certain Christian systems have developed quite different ideas of grace, and Pelagianism has its advocates in liberal 20th-century Protestantism. The great emphasis on grace is a distinction of Christianity. In recent years among orthodox theologians there has been a renewed interest in the theology of grace. Among traditional usages, they distinguish three forms of grace: God's communication of Himself to the Christian soul is grace; the favorable attitude of God toward the soul is grace; the ontological modification of Christian life by God's favor is grace.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Treatise on Nature and Grace
Nicolas Malebranche; Patrick Riley.
Clarendon Press, 1992
Four Anti-Pelagian Writings
John A. Mourant; William J. Collinge; Augustine.
Catholic University of America Press, 1992
Defense of St. Augustine
P. De Letter; Saint Prosper of Aquitaine.
Newman Press, 1963
Librarian’s tip: "On Grace and Free Will, Against Cassian the Lecturer" begins on p. 70 and "Official Pronouncements of the Apostolic See on Divine Grace And Free Will" begins on p. 178
God's Grace and Man's Hope
Daniel Day Williams.
Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1949
Sovereign Grace: The Place and Significance of Christian Freedom in John Calvin's Political Thought
William R. Stevenson Jr.
Oxford University Press, 1999
Freewill or Predestination: The Battle over Saving Grace in Mid-Tudor England
Andrew Penny.
Boydell Press, 1990
Theological Investigations
Karl S. J. Rahner; Cornelius Ernst.
Helicon Press, vol.1, 1961
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 9 "Concerning the Relationship Between Nature and Grace"
The Cost of Discipleship
Dietrich Bonhoeffer.
Macmillan, 1963 (Revised edition)
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 1 "Costly Grace"
Quaestio Disputata: Toward a Psychology of Grace
Roy, Louis; Meissner, W. W.
Theological Studies, Vol. 57, No. 2, June 1996
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Religion and Human Nature
Keith Ward.
Oxford University Press, 1998
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 10 "Salvation by Grace"
Grace and Christology in the Early Church
Donald Fairbairn.
Oxford University Press, 2003
Richard Hooker and Reformed Theology: A Study of Reason, Will, and Grace
Nigel Voak.
Oxford University Press, 2003
Puritans and Predestination: Grace in English Protestant Theology, 1525-1695
Dewey D. Wallace Jr.
University of North Carolina Press, 1982
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