Holy Spirit

Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost [ghost, i.e., spirit, a translation of Gr. pneuma=breath, air], in Christian doctrine, the third person of the Trinity. The Holy Spirit is sometimes defined as the aspect of God immanent in this world, in human beings, and in the church. Jesus' promise to his disciples of a Comforter (or Paraclete, i.e., advocate), in John 14, is considered his principal reference to the Holy Spirit, and the descent of the Holy Spirit on the apostles and the communication of the gift of tongues, as recounted in Acts 2, is thought to be an example of the work of the Holy Spirit in time. This incident is commemorated on Pentecost (Whitsunday). Certain Christian groups, such as the Montanists and the Society of Friends, have attributed utterances of their members to the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. The dove is the symbol of the Holy Spirit. For the controversy over the procession of the Holy Spirit, see creed.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2013, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

The Holy Spirit: Presence, Power, Person
Del Colle, Ralph.
Theological Studies, Vol. 62, No. 2, June 2001
Recovering the Gifts of the Holy Spirit in Moral Theology
Bouchard, Charles E.
Theological Studies, Vol. 63, No. 3, September 2002
Theological Presuppositions in Our Preaching about the Spirit
McDonnell, Kilian.
Theological Studies, Vol. 59, No. 2, June 1998
The Church and the Holy Spirit in 20th Century Russia
Bobrinskoy, Boris.
The Ecumenical Review, Vol. 52, No. 3, July 2000
Doctrine of the Trinity
Cyril C. Richardson.
Abingdon Press, 1958
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 6 "The Spirit and the Trinity of Love"
The Protestant Faith
George W. Forell.
Prentice-Hall, 1960
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 7 "The Holy Spirit and the Church"
The Early Christian Fathers: A Selection from the Writings of the Fathers from St. Clement of Rome to St. Athanasuis
Henry Bettenson; Henry Bettenson.
Oxford University Press, 1969
Advents of the Spirit: An Introduction to the Current Study of Pneumatology
Bradford E. Hinze; D. Lyle Dabney.
Marquette University Press, 2001
Yves Congar's Theology of the Holy Spirit
Elizabeth Teresa Groppe.
Oxford University Press, 2004
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