St. Ignatius of Loyola

Ignatius of Loyola, Saint

Saint Ignatius of Loyola (Ĭgnā´shəs, loiyō´lə), 1491–1556, Spanish churchman, founder of the Jesuits (see Jesus, Society of), b. Loyola Castle near Azpeitia, Guipúzcoa, Spain.

Early Life and Ordination

Ignatius was of noble birth and was reared in the household of a prominent courtier. In 1517 he left his life at court to enter the army. During a convalescence (1521) from a serious wound, he was converted through reading a life of Jesus. He went to Montserrat, where he was confessed and absolved, and from there he went to Manresa. In 1523 he set out for the Holy Land. Prevented from entering Palestine, he returned with the decision to secure an education.

He studied at Barcelona (1524–26); at Alcalá (1526–27), where for a short time he was imprisoned by the Inquisition; at Salamanca (1527–28), where he again suffered brief imprisonment; and at Paris. St. Ignatius's strength lay not in scholarship but in spiritual direction. The Inquisition again became suspicious, but he was cleared of any irregularities. He and six followers—among them St. Francis Xavier and Diego Lainez—together took vows of poverty and chastity. This group was the nucleus of the future Jesuits. They planned to go to the Holy Land and live in imitation of Christ, working to convert the Muslims, but the Turkish wars intervened, and they went to Rome instead. They were ordained (1537) and received by the pope (1538), who set them to work in Italy.

Founding of the Jesuit Order

In 1539, Ignatius drew up a Formula for a new order and secured (1540) papal approval. It served as the basis for the later Constitutions, published at his death, by which Jesuits have been governed ever since. Ignatius was elected (1541) general of the order and remained its leader, with headquarters in Rome, until his death. Although the Jesuits became a major force in the Counter Reformation, the society was not founded particularly for that purpose. Ignatius's great interests seem to have been the foreign missions and the education of youth. Many schools were opened in Europe during his lifetime, and missions were begun in Japan, India, and Brazil.

He was dominated all his life by a desire to imitate Christ. His Spiritual Exercises, written over a number of years, are a series of reflections, examinations of conscience, and prayers, grouped according to a traditional set of four steps leading to mystical union with God. The spirituality identified with St. Ignatius is characterized by emphasis on human initiative. His little book is a classic of Christian mysticism and is much used by devout Catholics. His concept of the "soldier of Christ" has often been understood too militaristically: Ignatius used the image in obvious imitation of St. Paul (Eph. 6.10–17). He is buried in the Gesù at Rome. He was canonized in 1622. Feast: July 31.

Bibliography

See Letters of St. Ignatius Loyola (tr. 1959) and his quasi-autobiography, The Testament of Ignatius Loyola (tr. 1900); J. P. Brodrick, The Origin of the Jesuits (1940, repr. 1971); T. Maynard, Saint Ignatius and the Jesuits (1956); H. Rahner, Ignatius the Theologian (tr. 1968); W. W. Meissner, Ignatius of Loyola: The Psychology of a Saint (1992).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Ignatius Loyola: The Founder of the Jesuits
Paul Van Dyke.
New York ; C. Scribner's sons, 1926
The Education of Ignatius Loyola
Mullett, Michael A.
History Review, December 1999
Letters of St. Ignatius of Loyola
William J. Young; St. Ignatius.
Loyola University Press, 1959
Saint Ignatius' Idea of a Jesuit University: A Study in the History of Catholic Education, Including Part Four of the Constitutions of the Society of Jesus
George E. Ganss; Ignatius of Loyola.
Marquette University Press, 1956 (2nd edition)
To the Greater Glory: A Psychological Study of Ignatian Spirituality
W. W. Meissner.
Marquette University Press, 1999
The Study of Spirituality
Cheslyn Jones; Geoffrey Wainwright; Edward Yarnold.
Oxford University Press, 1986
Librarian’s tip: "Ignatius Loyola" by Michael Evans pg. 357
The Power and Secret of the Jesuits
René Feülöp-Miller; F. S. Flint; D. F. Tait.
Viking Press, 1930
Librarian’s tip: Part II "Ignatius Loyola"
Ignacio Ellacuria and the Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius Loyola
Ashley, J. Matthew.
Theological Studies, Vol. 61, No. 1, March 2000
Lives in Education: A Narrative of People and Ideas
L. Glenn Smith; Joan K. Smith.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1994 (2nd edition)
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 5 "The Reformers"
Catholic Reform: From Cardinal Ximenes to the Council of Trent, 1495-1563: An Essay with Illustrative Documents and a Brief Study of St. Ignatius Loyola
John C. Olin.
Fordham University Press, 1990
FREE! The Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius of Loyola
S. J. Mullan.
P. J. Kenedy and Sons, 1914
The Counter-Reformation, 1550-1600
B. J. Kidd.
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1933
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