Moors

Moors, nomadic people of the northern shores of Africa, originally the inhabitants of Mauretania. They were chiefly of Berber and Arab stock. In the 8th cent. the Moors were converted to Islam and became fanatic Muslims. They spread SW into Africa (see Mauritania) and NW into Spain. Under Tarik ibn Ziyad they crossed to Gibraltar in 711 and easily overran the crumbling Visigothic kingdom of Roderick. They spread beyond the Pyrenees into France, where they were turned back at Tours by Charles Martel (732). In 756, Abd ar-Rahman I established the Umayyad dynasty at Córdoba. This emirate became under Abd ar-Rahman III the caliphate of Córdoba. The court there grew in wealth, splendor, and culture. The regent al-Mansur in the late 10th cent. waged bitter warfare with the Christians of N Spain, where, from the beginning, the Moorish conquest had met with its only opposition. The cities of the south, Toledo, Córdoba, and Seville, speedily became centers of the new culture and were famed for their universities and architectural treasures (see Moorish art and architecture). With the exception of brief periods, there was, however, no strong central government; the power was split up among dissenting local leaders and factions. The caliphate fell in 1031, and the Almoravids in 1086 took over Moorish Spain, which was throughout the whole period closely connected in rule with Morocco. Almoravid control slowly declined and by 1174 was supplanted by the Almohads. These successive waves of invasion had brought into Spain thousands of skilled Moorish artisans and industrious farmers who contributed largely to the intermittent prosperity of the country. They were killed or expelled in large numbers (to the great loss of Spain) in the Christian reconquest, which began with the recovery of Toledo (1085) by Alfonso VI, king of León and Castile. The great Christian victory (1212) of Navas de Tolosa prepared the way for the downfall of the Muslims. Córdoba fell to Ferdinand III of Castile in 1236. The wars went on, and one by one the Moorish strongholds fell, until only Granada remained in their hands. Málaga was taken (1487) after a long siege by the forces of Ferdinand and Isabella, and in 1492 Granada was recovered. Many of the Moors remained in Spain; those who remained faithful to Islam were called Mudejares, while those who accepted Christianity were called Moriscos. They were allowed to stay in Spain but were kept under close surveillance. They were persecuted by Philip II, revolted in 1568, and in the Inquisition were virtually exterminated. In 1609 the remaining Moriscos were expelled. Thus the glory of the Moorish civilization in Spain was gradually extinguished. Its contributions to Western Europe and especially to Spain were almost incalculable—in art and architecture, medicine and science, and learning (especially ancient Greek learning).

See S. Lane-Poole, The Moors in Spain (1886, repr. 1967).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2013, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Moorish Spain: Cordoba, Seville, Granada
Enrique Sordo; Wim Swaan.
Elek Books, 1963
FREE! The Moors in Spain
Stanley Lane-Poole; Arthur Gilman.
G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1903
A Unique Bilingual Surrender Treaty from Muslim-Crusader Spain
Burns, Robert I.; Chevedden, Paul E.
The Historian, Vol. 62, No. 3, Spring 2000
Moorish Chronicles
Washington Irving.
Belford, Clarke
The Conquest of Granada
Washington Irving.
Belford, Clarke & Company
FREE! History of the Conquest of Spain by the Arab-Moors
Henry Coppée.
Little, Brown, vol.1, 1881
FREE! History of the Conquest of Spain by the Arab-Moors
Henry Coppée.
Little, Brown, vol.2, 1881
The Structure of Spanish History
Américo Castro; Edmund L. King.
Princeton University Press, 1954
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 4 "Islam and Hispania"
A History of Islamic Spain
W. Montgomery Watt; Pierre Cachia.
Edinburgh University Press, 1965
A History of Medieval Spain
Joseph F. O'Callaghan.
Cornell University Press, 1975
Librarian’s tip: Part II "The Ascendancy of Islam, 711-1031"
The Jews of Moslem Spain
Eliyahu Ashtor; Aaron Klein; Jenny Machlowitz Klein.
Jewish Publication Society of America, vol.1, 1992
Power in the Portrayal: Representations of Jews and Muslims in Eleventh- and Twelfth-Century Islamic Spain
Ross Brann.
Princeton University Press, 2002
Spain: The Root and the Flower: A History of the Civilization of Spain and of the Spanish People
John A. Crow.
Harper & Row, 1963 (Revised edition)
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of the Moors begins on p. 48
The Learned King: The Reign of Alfonso X of Castile
Joseph F. O'Callaghan.
University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993
The Golden Trade of the Moors
E. W. Bovill.
Oxford University Press, 1958
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