Anne Frank

Anne Frank, 1929–45, German diarist, b. Frankfurt as Anneliese Marie Frank. In order to escape Nazi persecution, her family emigrated (1933) to Amsterdam, where her father Otto became a business owner. After the Nazis occupied the Netherlands, her family (along with several other Jews) hid for just over two years (1942–44) in a "secret annex" that was part of her father's office and warehouse building. During those years, Anne kept a diary characterized by poignancy, insight, humor, touching naiveté, and sometimes tart observation. The family was betrayed to the Germans in 1944, and at 15 Anne died of typhus in the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.

Anne's diary was discovered by one of the family's helpers and after the war was given to her father, the only immediate family member to survive the Holocaust. Edited by him, The Diary of a Young Girl (1947) became an international best seller and has been translated into English (1952) and 66 other languages. It was also adapted into a play (1955) and a film (1959). A critical edition was published in 1986, and a complete edition, containing almost a third more material, appeared in 1995 on the 50th anniversary of her death. Anne Frank also wrote stories, fables, and essays, which were published in 1959. The Franks' Amsterdam hiding place is now a museum, there is a foundation established by her father, and institutions devoted to her exist in New York, Berlin, London, and other cities.

See biographies by M. Müller (tr. 1998) and C. A. Lee (1999); M. Gies, Anne Frank Remembered (1988); R. Van Der Rol and R. Verhoeven, Anne Frank, Beyond the Diary: A Photographic Remembrance (1995); C. A. Lee, The Hidden Life of Otto Frank (2003); F. Prose, Anne Frank: The Book, the Life, the Afterlife (2009); M. Metselaar and R. van der Rol, Anne Frank: Her Life in Words and Pictures (2010); W. Lindwer, The Last Seven Months of Anne Frank (documentary film, 1988, and book, 1992); J. Blair, dir., Anne Frank Remembered (documentary film, 1995).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Understanding Anne Frank's The Diary of a Young Girl: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents
Hedda Rosner Kopf.
Greenwood Press, 1997
Anne Frank: Tragedy and Triumph
Meyers, Jeffrey.
Midstream, Vol. 57, No. 3, Summer 2011
Anne Frank in America: When the Single Most Famous Document to Come out of the Holocaust Was Published in America Half a Century Ago, It Caused a Sensation That Made and Ruined Reputations and Ignited Furious Arguments That Resonate Today
Feldman, Ellen.
American Heritage, Vol. 56, No. 1, February-March 2005
Anne Frank and After: Dutch Holocaust Literature in Historical Perspective
Dick Van Galen Last; Rolf Wolfswinkel.
Amsterdam University Press, 1996
Dutch Jewry: Its History and Secular Culture (1500-2000)
Jonathan Israel; Reinier Salverda.
Brill, 2002
Librarian’s tip: "Anne Frank and Her Diaries" begins on p. 301
War and Memory in the Twentieth Century
Martin Evans; Ken Lunn.
Berg Publishers, 1997
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 1 "'I Want to Go on Living after My Death': The Memory of Anne Frank"
The Presence of the Past in Children's Literature
Ann Lawson Lucas.
Praeger, 2003
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 15 "Reverberations of the Anne Frank Diaries in Contemporary German and British Children's Literature"
"In Spite of Everything": The Definitive Indefinite Anne Frank
Larson, Thomas.
The Antioch Review, Vol. 58, No. 1, Winter 2000
A House of Words: Jewish Writing, Identity, and Memory
Norman Ravvin.
McGill-Queens University Press, 1997
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 5 "Philip Roth's Literary Ghost: Rereading Anne Frank"
Writing from the Secret Annex: The Case of Anne Frank
Goertz, Karein K.
Michigan Quarterly Review, Vol. 39, No. 3, Summer 2000
Onstage: Who Censored Anne Frank?
Wieder, Judy.
The Advocate (The national gay & lesbian newsmagazine), No. 749, December 23, 1997
The Animation of Anne: Japanese Anime Encounters the Diary of a Holocaust Icon
Ramachandran, Hema.
Post Script, Vol. 24, No. 1, Fall 2004
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