Friedrich Schleiermacher

Schleiermacher, Friedrich Daniel Ernst

Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (frē´drĬkh dä´nyĕl ĕrnst shlī´ərmäkh´ər), 1768–1834, German Protestant theologian, b. Breslau. He broke away from the Moravian Church and studied at Halle. Ordained in 1794, he accepted a post as a Reformed preacher in Berlin. There he came into contact with the German Romantic movement and became a friend of Friedrich Schlegel. In 1799 he published his eloquent Religion: Speeches to Its Cultured Despisers (tr. 1893). The work showed his closeness to the Romantics as well as the influence of his Pietist background. He defined religion as an absolute dependence on a monotheistic God, reached through intuition and independent of dogma. From 1804 to 1807, Schleiermacher taught at Halle. When war led to the closing of that university he returned to Berlin, where he was made professor in 1810. Through his stirring sermons he played a prominent part in the Prussian war against Napoleon. From 1819 he was occupied with his major work, The Christian Faith, published in 1821–22 (tr. of 2d ed. 1928). Here he developed systematically his earlier ideas, viewing Christianity as the highest manifestation of religion. The work exhibits the influence of Kant, Spinoza, and Leibniz and shows Schleiermacher's aversion to both German rationalism and theological orthodoxy. His thought exerted an enormous and lasting influence on Protestant theology. He is also known for his attempt to secure the liberation of the church from the state and for his translations of Plato.

See studies by R. B. Brandt (1941, repr. 1968), R. R. Niebuhr (1964), G. Spiegler (1967), S. Sykes (1971), M. Redeker (1973), and K. Clements, ed. (1987).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2013, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Friedrich Schleiermacher: Pioneer of Modern Theology
Friedrich Schleiermacher; Keith Clements.
Fortress Press, 1991
Schleiermacher's Soliloquies: An English Translation of the Monologen
Horace Leland Friess; Friedrich Schleiermacher.
Open Court, 1926
Lectures on Philosophical Ethics
Robert B. Louden; Louise Adey Huish; Friedrich Schleiermacher.
Cambridge University Press, 2002
Hegel on Schleiermacher and Postmodernity
Reid, Jeffrey.
CLIO, Vol. 32, No. 4, Summer 2003
Divergent Traditions, Converging Faiths: Troeltsch, Comparative Theology, and the Conversation with Hinduism
Joseph Molleur.
Peter Lang, 2000
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 1 "Troeltsch and Schleiermacher"
Hermeneutics and the Study of History
Wilhelm Dilthey; Rudolf A. Makkreel; Frithjof Rodi.
Princeton University Press, 1996
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 1 "Schliermacher's Hermeneutical System in Relation to Earlier Protestant Hermeneutics (1860)"
Barth and Schleiermacher on the Doctrine of Election: A Systematic-Theological Comparison
Matthias Gockel.
Oxford University Press, 2006
Transforming the Hermeneutic Context: From Nietzsche to Nancy
Gayle L. Ormiston; Alan D. Schrift.
State University of New York Press, 1990
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 8 "Hermeneutic Ellipses: Writing the Hermeneutical Circle in Schleiermacher"
The Experience of the Foreign: Culture and Translation in Romantic Germany
Antoine Berman; S. Heyvaert.
State University of New York Press, 1992
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 10 "F. Schleiermacher and W. Von Humboldt: Translation in the Hermeneutical-Linguistic Space"
A Dubious Heritage: Studies in the Philosophy of Religion after Kant
Louis Dupré.
Paulist Press, 1977
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 1 "Schleiermacher's Religion as Feeling"
Theology and Church: Shorter Writings, 1920-1928
Karl Barth; Louise Pettibone Smith.
Harper & Row, 1962
Librarian’s tip: Chap. V "Schleiermacher"
The Political Thought of the German Romantics, 1793-1815
H. S. Reiss.
Blackwell, 1955
Librarian’s tip: Chap. V "Schleiermacher (1768-1834)"
German Philosophy, 1760-1860: The Legacy of Idealism
Terry Pinkard.
Cambridge University Press, 2002
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 6 "The 1790's after Fichte: The Romantic Appropriation of Kant (I): Holderlin, Novalis, Schleiermacher, Schlegel"
Impossible Individuality: Romanticism, Revolution, and the Origins of Modern Selfhood, 1787-1802
Gerald N. Izenberg.
Princeton University Press, 1992
Librarian’s tip: "Friedrich Schleiermacher: The Divided Self" begins on p. 18
The Range of Interpretation
Wolfgang Iser.
Columbia University Press, 2000
Librarian’s tip: "Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher: Self-Reflective Circularity" begins on p. 41
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